Wednesday, November 18, 2015

It's a Small, Small World (of Wood)

By far the best thing about writing this blog is getting personal feedback from Go Wood readers. Yesterday, after the posting of "A Trip to the Mountain Above Turmero", I received two such pieces of an interesting modern-day version of a similar trip, and the second a piece of information that could fairly be called an incredible coincidence.

Story One

IWCS member Michael Nee shares his recent encounter with the mountains of Bolivia...

OK, you asked for it. Interesting story from Venezuela. Here's mine.

 The sandstone cliffs of Serrania de Chochis seen from our lodging. There are only two trails to the top.
Saturday (Nov. 14, 2015) we were at Chochis, Bolivia, a little town at the base of a spectacular escarpment, the highest range in the eastern half of the country, at 1245 m (about 3700 ft). We took the dirt road (after eating at places with chickens clucking around begging for bread crumbs) alongside the escarpment to one of the two places where it is possible to climb up.

The weather report was predicting a high for the day of 100 deg F. The first part was a steep climb on a dirt trail through forest with no breeze at all.

Then began the part which was more a scramble up nearly vertical places, with sometimes a rope tied to a tree to give some help. As we got higher and surrounded on both sides by vertical cliffs, our narrow gap had "forest", or rather trees growing out at an angle, including PodocarpusMy climbing companion, Daniel Villarroel, is a Bolivian getting a PhD at the Unversidade de Brasilia in Brazil.  He was specifically after a new species of Myrtaceae which he had collected in flower, but was hoping to find in fruit. We in fact did find it--and with fruit--so now he has enough material to publish it. 
 A tree in the Myrtaceae family, new to science, and this the first discovery of the fruits.

Most things we saw he was familiar with because of his research, and it was "that is a new record for this range, and it was only described two years ago", "that Schefflera of the Araliaceae is a new species, but we're not sure what to call it yet", "that species has only been collected once before and is only found on this mountaintop".

Needless to say, whenever I have the opportunity to collect wood for MADw, I get a piece. But on this trip I was not getting much wood, because we had the whole climb back down that precipitous trail and already had more material in the plant presses than when we came up. At least we had pretty near finished all the many liters of water we were smart enough to bring along, and that lightened the load a little.

The top of the range is a grassland with shrubs and small trees and full of frantastic sandstone formations. Put 18°07’53”S, 60°00’24”W into Google Earth to see where we climbed to
A view from the side of the Serrania looking down on the plains.

Byrsonima tree huddled among the rock formations on the top of the Serrania.
Then it was time to go back down, easier on the lungs but harder on the legs than scrambling up. Much of the way down I spent sliding on my behind and carefully searching for secure footholds. We did manage to find a Podocarpus in "seed" which we had not noticed on the way up, and a mystery tree which I still am completely stumped on after 30 years of working in Bolivia.

The climb up was 670 meters (about 2100 ft) vertically from the dirt road to the top of the mountain, and so it was also 670 meters back down. My legs are still sore (Tuesday).

Now the question is, why am I still doing this when it won't be long until my 70th birthday??
Great story, Michael. Answer to your last question..."Because you can."

Story Two

I was across the hall in the Hoverter Wood Operations Research laboratory yesterday afternoon, looking at specimens of our Penn State Xylarium (wood collection).  I've recently been examining specimens from the extensive collection of IWCS member Dennis Brett of New Jersey; there are over one hundred boxes of his specimens in the lab.

While digging through one of the boxes, I had the inclination to call Dennis...we hadn't talked since the World of Wood 2015 event we held here at Penn State this summer. (Sorry, forgot I hadn't posted anything about that yet...need to catch up!) Anyway, Dennis is doing fine, having just celebrated his 80th birthday in excellent health.

Now Dennis is an interesting guy. He started collecting pieces of wood as a 10-year old growing up in New York City, and made it a life-long passion. As a teenager, he joined the IWCS in its formative years, and he met and traded with some of the founders of the Society, including the original founder, Mr. Harold Nogle of Newton County, Texas. As we chatted, I mentioned the article about Turmero and its author, J.H. Standen.

What Dennis told me next blew me away. Dennis knew Mr. Standen, and had purchased specimens from him. In fact, he had a box of Standen's Venezuelan specimens in his collection...and that box was sitting somewhere in our lab, just a few feet away from me!

Think about that for a second...a fellow collects wood samples from a mountain in Venezuela in 1949 (Dennis told me he thinks Mr. Standen was working as a consultant to Ford Motor Company at the time, which was thinking of building a plant near there), he sells many of those samples to a young man in New York City, who shares them with a professor at Penn State University sixty-six years later. And that professor, without knowing anything of the samples, or their existence a mere few feet away from him, posts the story of the collection of them using a communication technology that wasn't even dreamed of in the time in which they were collected.

Will you agree with me that the coincidence borders on the incredible?

We'll have to wait for the rest of this story...I have to go through the boxes one by one, and they don't really have any identification on the boxes. So, one of these days, hopefully soon, I'll find samples of the rare species mentioned by Mr. Standen in his travel account of so many years ago.

What a small, small, world. And while traversing it, Go Wood.

Tuesday, November 17, 2015

Wood Collecting, Back in Time

I may have mentioned in this space that I started a new blog, World of Wood, based on the archives of a journal of that name published by the International Wood Collectors Society. Today I posted another wonderful old adventure from the days when wood collecting really was an adventure.

And although I usually send the link to the post out only to IWCS members, I thought this one was so nice that I thought it might appeal to a broader audience. From when times were simpler...

A Trip to the Mountain Above Turmero



Monday, November 16, 2015

Winter in the Woods

As things cool off down here in the states, we start dreaming of roasted turkeys and trimming the family Christmas tree. In the back of our minds, though, we're going through the mental checklist of winter preparedness: fresh coolant in the vehicles, firewood cut and stacked, pipes winterized, and salt and shovels at the ready.

But not so tough, compared to winter loggers in the northern reaches of Canada, eh?

These high-quality videos provide excellent detail on the logging process that you don't often get...number of truckloads a day, cost of broken components, how the machines work. They give us a good appreciation of the capital and human investment necessary to keep the front end of the wood products industry humming, when the rest of us are huddled by the fire. Good job, boys.

Wednesday, November 4, 2015

Notes From the Road (2) - The Sound of Music

Had a full week visiting wood plants last week. The best stop was a visit to the Martin Guitar Company in Nazareth, Pennsylvania. You may recall that we took a video tour of the plant as part of a previous Go Wood post.

Well, news is good in Nazareth. Company folks affirmed that yes, the guitar business is much so, that the company expanded its manufacturing capacity to a new operation in Mexico a few years ago. When a thing is good, it will live on.

Certain things stood out to me as I toured the plant with members of the New England Kiln Drying Association. As one who has been through hundreds of wood operations, and seen the good, the bad, and the ugly, I can tell you...this operation is well-managed. Very well managed. It shows in the plant, and on the faces of the employees as they speak of their work.

In the milling operation, every unit of lumber is clearly identified and quantified.

As components are manufactured, they are tracked with precision through the process, so that both stock and custom guitars can be made in the shortest possible time.

As we learned in "The Secret of Stradivari", the internal design of a musical sound box is the key to the tonal quality of the instrument. Martin has their own internal designs, and each component is manually shaped by human hands to achieve the aged sound Martin guitars are famous for.

The sides of the guitar are curved in an interesting process, one that has been improved by the employees so that it cuts the time for this step of the process in half.

Every woodworker knows the value of proper sanding in the process. Here, in a great example of efficient cellular processing, boxes are sanded to a smooth surface prior to final finishing. One person noted the absence of dust in the factory...the guide smiled and said something like..."Five million dollars buys a heck of a dust removal system." I may be wrong about the amount, but it was a big enough number to make the tourist realize that these guitars are the products of a huge capital investment.

And speaking of huge capital investment... Marty, the company's resident robot. This thing was amazing in the precision and versatility with which it handled the guitar boxes as it polished them on two large polishing wheels. Another sign of the inevitable rise of the machine in society, even when the products being produced are highly "customized".

I never knew there were so many different types of pearl.

Now, I don't play guitar, but I might buy one of these to carry around just to look good.

And to top off a great visit, I spent some time perusing the Martin museum on site, open to visitors. Wow.

I appreciated the comment of company CEO Chris Martin in the video above when he acknowledges how fortunate he was to be born into a historic guitar manufacturing family, and not an accordion manufacturing family. And yet, he and his employees are more than just fortunate...they are living evidence that love of music, and history, and pride in your work, combined with some ingenuity and a passion to make it always better, will produce great results.

Friday, October 23, 2015

Back to the Fur for the Future

Here's a great video from 1950 forwarded by Aaron E. out in Oregon, which features, among other great stories, parachuting beavers.

I bet Dylan would love to get a job like this.

Thursday, October 15, 2015

Humans Need Not Apply

In the last post, we discussed steps that could be taken to "grow" the forest products industry in the Northeastern United States. A group of Northeastern government officials had invited my ideas for growing the industry. One might ask..."why?"

Are the politicians of the region suddenly feeling an urge to increase the profits of an industry that has been politically incorrect for decades in the region? Are they worried that the abundant forest resources of the region are going largely under-utilized? Are they worried that too many cabinets, flooring and furniture pieces are being manufactured in distant locations?

Of course not. They need keep their jobs. And the forest products sector is one that once offered hundreds of thousands of jobs in the Northeast...but that number is dropping precipitously. For instance, wood industry employment in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont decreased by one third in the decade from 2003 to 2013. The good news is that the number has rebounded by 10% since the dog days of early 2010.

Wood-Products Manufacturing Jobs in Northern New England
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont
Source: Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor.

But the longer trend is hard to ignore. Even through the "boom" years of the housing market from 2003 to 2005, industry employment remained flat. And anyone who has visited industry shows over the past decade knows why. Technology is helping business owners replace humans to keep their costs under control.

In my advice to the government officials, I ignored the impacts of technology that were already underway, and focused on the other areas of costs which are being imposed largely by government policy. The hope is that by trimming their sails a little, governments could reduce the non-market costs imposed on businesses and enable them to invest a little more in their work forces.

But even under the best case scenario, those hopes for increased employment seem more like fairy dust with each passing year.

Back in the 1980's, my graduate research led me to programming an "expert system" that helped employees of a gypsum wallboard plant diagnose process problems in real time. The project required me to spend a summer on-site at the plant. On my first day, a local real estate lady showed me a couple of apartments, during which she asked me what I would be doing at the plant. As I gave her the simplest explanation, her immediate reaction, in a sweet but sincere Southern drawl, was "You're not going to take our jobs away, I hope?"

The question somewhat startled me, because I had never considered that possibility. I quickly assured her, that no, of course not, my system didn't replace any simply helped them do their job better.

For some reason, she didn't seem convinced. And I had a funny feeling in the pit of my stomach.

Thursday, August 20, 2015

Turning the Ship of State

Earlier this week I had the opportunity to speak with the Agriculture sub-committee of state and province representatives at the Eastern Regional Conference of the Council of State Governments. Over breakfast, I was able to share with them what I perceived to be actions that would grow the forest and wood products industries in the northeastern U.S. and Canada. They were very cordial and seemed open to the ideas presented, and many follow-up questions were asked.

Here are the bullet points I went over, very quickly, with the group. As you survey the items, please remember that I was not there to give them a run-down on what actions were being taken, or what initiatives are currently being considered or are popular in industry. I approached the development of the list as an accounting matter...that is, what could state and federal governments do that would improve companies' bottom lines, and thereby attract more investment in the industry? What policy actions would generate more in revenue or cost savings that they would cost the companies in compliance?

Here's what I came up with...

Recommendations for Growing the Forest Industry in the Northeast

  1. Focus on efforts to reduce constraints on the general economy, primarily regulation and taxation. Wood products will sell in a strong economy, but be deferred in a weak economy.
  2. The state should be selling, not acquiring, forestland. Private owners have incentive to actively manage each acre of land according to their stewardship and personal objectives. Public managers are biased toward minimal intervention due to conflicting interests of stakeholders. Private acres produce logs, syrup, and tax revenues. Public lands produce maintenance expenses for public activities, take woodlands out of production, and yield no tax revenue. Divestiture of public lands would result in lower log costs as buyers harvest to finance the land purchases and stewardship objectives, and resulting harvests of mature forest lands will result in increased species diversity, productivity, and carbon uptake of forest lands.
  3. Forest ownership and corporate sales tax laws could include discounted taxes on logs, lumber, and components sold within the state, to encourage local processing of the state’s forest resource.  Companies in the wood products supply chain will be encouraged to open facilities in more states in order to take advantage of the tax benefits. This in turn will reduce transportation costs and fuel consumption at all stages of the supply chain. Important: Note that helping the wood products industry means decreasing the taxes on in-state products, not increasing taxes on exported products.
  4. Harmonize transportation and logistics regulation within and between states. Make a road-legal truck in one state or province road-legal in any county in the multi-state region. One permit covers all, like one auto registration is valid in any state. Current regulatory inconsistencies are resulting in many companies moving to leasing transportation purely for administrative convenience, which adds cost to and reduces the margin on the final product.
  5. Implement an immediate ten-year moratorium on new Endangered Species listings, while existing listings are reviewed for evidence of successful vs. non-successful rulings and policies.
  6. Implement an immediate twenty-year moratorium on New Clean Air and Water regulations, while existing regulations are monitored for efficacy over a minimum twenty-year horizon. This will give other countries a chance to catch up to our level of environmental pollution control and to incur the same cost of doing so that our manufacturers work under.
  7. Reorganize state and federal agencies so that wildlife and environmental employees are dispersed into agricultural and commerce departments where they can develop policy in conjunction with, not against, producers.
  8. Promote cheap energy, not "green" energy. A growing economy and a healthy wood products industry requires the least expensive energy that can be had, and plenty of it. A policy focus on green energy necessitates energy conservation and higher energy prices, both of which deter industry growth. Stop current EPA “Clean Power Plan” which forces the replacement of coal power production with natural gas power production; this will increase the cost of electrical power and natural gas, both used in abundance by the forest and wood products industries. Eliminate subsidies for green power generation; recognize that biomass CHP applications are typically and best used by timber and agricultural harvesting and processing facilities as process by-products. Also recognize that biomass processing for energy production on distant shores is inefficient and at some point drives up the raw material cost for local forest industries. Promote, through education, the use of firewood, wood pellets, and, in communities with dense populations in forested areas, wood chips for residential and light industrial heating.
  9. Reverse all impacts of the Affordable Care Act, through repeal if necessary: eliminate barriers to interstate competition of health insurance. Dramatically increasing healthcare costs deter new employee hires and limit companies’ ability to offer competitive wages.
  10. Recognize that punishing consumers through policies like the Lacey Act extension to wood products and requiring “certified’ wood products in public building projects do not help most local wood products industries – they only drive compliance costs up and consumers to more affordable alternative materials. Prohibiting U.S. companies from importing and selling imported wood products at lower price points will not drive customers to local wood products at higher price points; it will drive them to cheaper alternatives to wood, and dull their purchasing preference for complementary wood products. Requiring certified wood products in government building contracts increases the cost of such projects and limits the number of companies that can compete for the business. Initiatives like these also subliminally place in consumers’ minds the idea that "non-certified" wood products are illegally and unsustainably harvested, when the reality in all but the most extreme cases is quite the opposite.
  11. Modernize building codes to reflect the development and potential of new engineered wood products that make tall wooden buildings attractive projects for future developers. Wooden buildings not only make use of wooden construction materials, but encourage the use of complimentary wood products in interior trim, furnishings, and artwork.
  12. Classify loggers as a “strategic, at-risk” occupation and support the viability of the profession with administrative support, investment tax credits, subsidized harvest insurance, and catastrophic health, liability, and property coverage.
  13. Celebrate the forest and wood industry with local and state-wide “forest fairs” and woodworking shows. Let people know that state and federal officials agree that “Wood is Good.”

I recognize that not many people in the industry will agree with all the above recommendations, because every company is running a different business model. Even fewer folks in the general public will agree with or understand all these points...many, if not most, are "politically incorrect". But, I formulated these recommendations not with an eye to their potential acceptance, but as an objective accounting-based assessment of what will work in companies' financial favor, and what works against them. There are probably more that I didn't think of; feel free to share with me if you care to, and I'll see that they are passed along.

Whether or not my short meeting with these state senators and representatives will have any impact is hard to say. I came away from the meeting with a sense that they had heard very similar stories and recommendations from many other industry representatives; nobody in the room appeared shocked by anything said. There were many interested follow-up questions, and a bit of discussion among the folks around the table. And a few approached me afterward with requests to follow-up with them with more detail in the near future.

I came away with just a glimmer of hope that the mighty ship of state can be slowly turned in a more productive direction. I also better appreciate the tough job that our state and provincial representatives have...they face a divided public and competing industries on one side, and complex and heavy-handed federal regulations on the other. All we can do is continue to communicate our great wood story to these folks, in a respectful and factual manner, and rely on their common sense to prevail before all our companies are driven out of business or to foreign shores.

P.S. Thanks to my many wood industry partners who shared their thoughts and cost numbers with me as I prepared for the meeting. Your input added a credibility to my comments that I could read in the faces of the folks in the room. They believed that what I was saying really was what many in our industries are experiencing. Way to Go, Wood.

Tuesday, August 11, 2015

Logging of Long-Gone Days

Here's a well-done video compilation of wondrous pictures of the old days of logging and sawmilling. You never get tired of looking at these old photos if you really have wood in the blood.

Thursday, July 9, 2015

Great Designs in Wood (65) - The Wooden Mosque of Choubin

In this Great Designs series, we've seen wooden temples in China and the great stave churches of Scandinavia. Here's another great example of how wood seems to be a universal medium for expression of spiritual fervor...the wooden mosque of Neishabour, Iran.

The narrator in the video tells us that the builder was...
"using the wood because it is nature. There is something in it, it is not made by a human being; it's made by nature....The trees are producing oxygen, as well as fruit, and of course wood."
Just another confirmation that people all over the world recognize wood as "the world's most environmentally-friendly raw material."

So, Go Wood.

Friday, June 26, 2015

Butternut Lumber on the Way

Yesterday, when I went home for lunch, I found my drive blocked by a familiar truck. Sure enough, I found my friend, professional logger and tree climber Martin Melville, shimmied up a small butternut (Juglans cinerea) tree in my front yard, just about to crank up the saw. So, with another interesting thing to video, and knowing how nifty Martin is in a tree, I fired up the trusty smartphone and watched him take it about 30 minutes. Amazing.

In the video I say that the tree was killed by the walnut canker disease, which is misleading on my part, because that could be confused with the Thousand Cankers Disease which is wiping out black walnut (Juglans nigra) across the country. The butternut, or white walnut, has been under attack from a different enemy, the butternut canker, and it is that disease to which my tree has succumbed. It suffered the classic symptoms: dieback of lower branches, followed by a canker at the base and then a few others climbing the trunk a few feet apart. This process has been going on for four years now, and it looked like the tree only had this summer, and possibly next, to go.

Martin comments around the 20:00 minute mark about the extent of the disease in the forest, and makes an apt comparison to the chestnut blight. Both are so pervasive now that mature trees of either species are few and far between.

From Wikipedia:
"The most serious disease of Juglans cinerea is butternut decline or butternut canker. In the past the causal organism of this disease was thought to be a fungus, Melanconis juglandis. Now this fungus has been associated with secondary infections and the primary causal organism of the disease has been identified as another species of fungus, Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum. The fungus is spread by wide-ranging vectors, so isolation of a tree offers no protection. 
Symptoms of the disease include dying branches and stems. Initially, cankers develop on branches in the lower crown. Spores developing on these dying branches are spread by rainwater to tree stems. Stem cankers develop 1 to 3 years after branches die. Tree tops killed by stem-girdling cankers do not re-sprout. Diseased trees usually die within several years. Completely free-standing trees seem better able to withstand the fungus than those growing in dense stands or forest. In some areas, 90% of the butternut trees have been killed. The disease is reported to have eliminated butternut from North and South Carolina. The disease is also reported to be spreading rapidly in Wisconsin. By contrast, black walnut seems to be resistant to the disease."

I hated to see one of my favorite trees taken down, but with the World of Wood 2015 conference coming up next month, this was a good time to say my goodbyes and call Martin.  Mike Powell here at Penn State is going to saw this and several other neat logs up as a sawing demonstration at the conference, and the lumber will be auctioned off.  It will be nice to see my tree sawn and watch the beautiful lumber appear. I'll have Mike saw at least one one-inch board so I can make specimen samples for our Penn State wood collection, complete with vouchers, leaves, and nuts. That's the real beauty of nature - death of one organism provides bounty for another.

So, if you're a wood worker who has been looking for some nice butternut boards, you know where you can get some the third week of July. Hope to see you here.

P.S. Today is the last day that our conference hotels are holding room blocks. You'll still be able to reserve at the discounted rate after today, if rooms are available, but the hotels aren't guaranteeing availability after today. So, get your room while they're still there!

Wednesday, June 24, 2015

Stand Up for Forestry

A funny thing happened this week. I picked up a copy of The Forestry Source, which is an official monthly publication of the Society of American Foresters. Since I haven't been an SAF member since my college days, I thought it would be interesting to see how much forestry issues have changed in that time of several decades.

As I thumbed through the issue, I thought to myself..."a lot."

Then, the funny thing happened. Not two hours later, I received an email from my old friend and former Ibberson Chair professor at Penn State, Harry Wiant. Harry retired from here about seven or eight years ago, I guess, and went out to live with his family in Seattle. I occasionally still get a nice email from him, and it's either another one of his country music recordings, or something related to forestry. This time, he was making a direct reference to the very issue I had just been reading...and he had some thoughts to share, including a speech he used to regularly give. Many foresters loved this speech, but near the end of his career Harry found his point of view in the minority, at least among policy makers and educators. Times were changing, and 21st-century forestry is not what 20th-century forestry was. Much of what Harry warned against in this speech have now come to be.

Whether you agree with his viewpoint or not, I think you'll agree that his speech gives us a frame of reference for what professional forestry values once were. With Harry's permission, I reprint it here for posterity.


The Forestry Source this month is a painful obituary of a once proud profession.  Many of us saw this coming years ago.  National forests are a non-productive disaster, forestry schools have little forestry left, even in the names, and the nightmare sought by the Greenies is reality.  I am thankful I was in the profession when it was a profession.  Goodbye forestry!

Here is my talk in case you have lost it; I fear the last couple sentences was a dream.


Harry V. Wiant, Jr.
1997 President, Society of American Foresters

This speech, with minor variations, has been presented over two dozen times at SAF and other forestry meetings. I always provide a disclaimer, indicating that the opinions I convey are my own and not necessarily those of SAF.


The Society of American Foresters has been a major part of my professional life, but I had never considered running for a national office.

Actually, I was becoming very discouraged . It appeared to me that many foresters were giving up in the struggle for meaningful forest management and were accepting politically correct but scientifically dubious management philosophies. I decided it was time to retire. A call from a well-known leader in our profession, asking me to run for Vice President, changed my life.

While visiting my daughter and son-in-law, both attorneys in Seattle, I wrote my campaign statement expressing forthrightly my concerns and agenda. "Dad, you can't win with a statement like that," my daughter exclaimed. Many were surprised when I did win in one of the largest voter turnouts (52%) in our history.


The philosophy I espouse, and the one that I'm convinced is shared by a majority of foresters in SAF is, briefly:

1. We love the forest but do not worship the forest. There is a world of difference.
2. We believe management of nature is not just an option but a necessity for human survival.
3. We believe biodiversity is a good thing but does not always over-ride other considerations. That's why we use hoes in our vegetable gardens.
4. We believe large segments of the environmental community have moved from legitimate concerns for clean air and water to eco-nonsense which threatens our economic prosperity and basic freedoms.
5. We believe forest management must be science based, and, like medicine, incrementally improved as new facts are learned.
6. We believe the biocentric philosophy undergirding much of the environmental movement today depreciates human beings and could have devastating consequences to our society.

I will expand discussion of some of these "tenants" in later sections.


Foresters generally have a broad education, but their unique knowledge is that relating to growing trees for timber production on a sustained yield basis. Warren Dolittle, a Past President of SAF, wrote in 1966:

" professional foresters, timber production is the one use of the land which is our undisputed responsibility. We manage forest lands for other uses too, but other groups and scientists usually claim primary responsibility for the disciplines representing these uses. So, let us take good care of our responsibility for growing timber before some other group lays claim to it."

Forestry schools and SAF, when considering membership requirements, accreditation of forestry programs, and certification of foresters, forget Warren's admonition at their own peril.


Ecosystem management, touted as a "paradigm switch" , is more politics than science. Proponents stress that its implementation will require "cooperation" by federal, state, and private landowners. In addition to the likelihood that it will encroach on our freedoms, this approach is hampered by the difficulty of defining and delimiting an ecosystem and the hopeless complexity of trying to manage one if you can figure out what and where it is.

The most serious problem with ecosystem management, in my opinion, is that the inherent complexities and uncertainties will provide our opponents with even more weapons to halt all meaningful forest management, further impacting the timber industry and rural communities.

The idea of returning our forests to some imagined condition in the past, usually severely limiting human influence, is troublesome also. I often say, trying to point out the absurdity of this notion, that I am kind of partial to the ice age. Why don't we return our agricultural lands to a pre-human condition so we can solve all our problems through starvation?


Every forester today should read "In a Dark Wood" by the philosopher, Alston Chase "Broken Trust, Broken Land" by the forester-sociologist Robert G. Lee , and "Saviors of the Earth" by the forester and environmental educator Michael S. Coffman . These authors trace the development of today's biocentric thinking, in many ways a return to primitive earth worship. Chase defines biocentrism as the belief that all things are interconnected (the "circle of life" espoused by New Age folks) and no organism is more important or valuable than another. It is a deadly philosophy dressed up in politically correct sentimentalism.

Karl Wenger, our Vice President, wrote in a letter in the J. For. (Nov. 1996):

"...native peoples set the forest afire annually, sometimes twice a year. Then during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, land was heavily logged without regard for the future. Fire followed and woodland grazing was widespread. Wildlife populations were decimated, erosion filled the streams with sediments, and floods were frequent and damaging. That current land management practices are threatening or endangering 1,300 species of the survivors of that period, as claimed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, is simply not believable." He is absolutely right!


Someone must produce! We cannot just trade trinkets produced in the "Cottage Industries" promoted by our eco-friends. In my speech, I point out here that the lights on in our meeting room are on because someone dug coal, or someone built a dam, or someone drilled for oil, or someone constructed a nuclear power plant. Again, someone must produce! Robert Lee, in a paper entitled, "The Futility of Seeking Common Ground," (Proc.For. Prod. Res. Soc., 1991) states:

"There is not a well-articulated ground in this debate. Advocates for radical change in forest management practices are seeking to revolutionize the social and moral order by challenging industrial capitalism and promoting "biocentric ethics" in place of "homocentric ethics.""

Eco-extremists have a nightmarish plan for us, viewed as utopian by them, as " would concentrate in urban vast lands in the interior of North America return to a wild state. " (Am. Sci. 84:166). The Wildlands Project, returning over half of North America to the wild state and pretty much eliminating man's access, may take 200 years to accomplish, by their estimate. Unfortunately, at the rate they are succeeding today, they will reach their goal much sooner. People and jobs receive scant attention by them.

While visiting in Seattle, a cold, rainy evening prompted our desire for a fire in the fireplace. A quick trip to the store provided neatly wrapped artificial fireplace logs. Printed on the box was:

"No trees were cut to produce these logs. Only sawdust, a waste product, was used."

My daughter suggested a big rubber stamp print on each piece of lumber:

"No trees were cut to produce this lumber. The boards fell out while producing sawdust to make composite fireplace logs."

A forester suggested the other day that on every roll of toilet paper, every ream of writing paper, plywood sheets, etc., we should print "Product of our Renewable Forests."


It has been my pleasure to serve on North Carolina Congressman Charles Taylor's
Forest Science Panel. He was a sponsor of the "Salvage Rider" which was bitterly fought by eco-extremists. At a public meeting in Asheville, NC, a reporter asked me, "Do you think the Salvage Rider was a good thing?" Amazingly, my answer, "Yes, and it's too bad we can't manage our public lands so we don't need a Salvage Rider." was quoted correctly the next day in the local press.

Also, it was my privilege to testify on "Criteria of Forest Health" before the Committee on Resources Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health, chaired by Helen Chenoweth, Congressional Representative from Idaho. She, like Charles Taylor, supports real forest management. I testified as President of SAF and independently as a forester and concerned citizen.

The SAF report on this topic was provided. Testifying independently, which I clearly differentiated, I stated:

* as humans we experience the joy of birth, the vigor of youth, slowing down with age, and finally, death; few of us believe the "hands-off" approach is appropriate for maintaining human health.

* the same is true for forests; a well-managed forest is the healthiest possible.

* criteria of forest health include an adequate cadre of professional foresters; the flexibility to manage the forest unhampered by poorly conceived environmental laws, frivolous appeals and lawsuits, and tax codes that discourage
long-term investments; strong forestry research programs in the USDA Forest Service, universities, and the private sector; and that forest management remain science based with a complete toolkit (prescribed fire, herbicides, clearcutting,

I summarized by saying that the answer to forest health problems is more not less forest management, and that the primary responsibility for managing our forests should in the hands of those best qualified to do the job - foresters!

A later witness, obviously an environmentalist, said, "I can't believe the arrogance of anyone saying that they can manage the forest better than god." Those few words tell us volumes.


One of my more thoughtful critics, not implying that most are not, wrote saying the environmentalist would welcome SAF trying to stand up to them since they outnumber us so. He has a point. Recent data indicate the mainline environmental groups in the U.S. have a membership about 350 times that of SAF and budgets that total more than 80 times ours. Those are challenging odds. Alston Chase is quoted as saying it took the Sierra Club 100 years to reach the first 100,000 members and just two years to recruit the second 100,000 and Greenpeace, which started in the U.S. in 1978, is adding 10,000 new subscribers to its publication every month. Truly, the environmental movement is an eco-Goliath.

I suggest SAF has three little stones, TRUTH, SCIENCE, and ECONOMICS. With the proper sling, such as the TV campaign, perhaps we can prevail.

An article by an environmental educator, J. H. Lehr (in press or published in Soil & Ground Water Cleanup Magazine), wrote:

"The world has just witnessed an environmental backlash that lasted less than two years.
... a newly elected Republican Congress was thought to be set on dismantling abusive environmental regulations. Some were sure they would succeed. Others...were not. They knew that the environmental movement, for better or worse, had done too thorough a job brainwashing the world's population...Yes, the battle is over...One can only be in awe of the leadership of the environmental movement for laying so strong a foundation that even logic, common sense, good science and economics could not knock the building from its moorings...
Today we are an environmentally activist society - so you may as well lean back and enjoy it. Continue to speak the truth, advise reason, logic and good science, but don't be disappointed when such wisdom is ignored. With psychic hotlines a 300 million dollar industry today, what can we expect..."

After one of my talks, a forester reported to me that his daughter was given a t-shirt in kindergarten which pictured a loaded log truck. Printed underneath was "If only trees could scream!" It starts in kindergarten but continues through our educational system. A college textbook of ecology says:

"Consider the ultimate form of external environmental disturbance - total destruction of the habitat, such as might result from logging of a forest, or an asteroid collision, or a nuclear holocaust."

The challenge is almost overwhelming. As I said in my campaign statement:

"A vote for me is a call to battle. I cannot promise victory, nor can I promise fame and glory... But you will know you fought the good fight."


The campaign statement (J. For., Sept. 1995) read:

"It has been a generally orderly retreat, but a retreat nonetheless. Now our backs are against the wall, and powerful voices in our ranks urge surrender. I heard the early salvos in northern California. Facts proved inadequate against a foe unhampered by truth, and the once-powerful redwood industry dried. Next, clearcutting, undoubtedly our best silvicultural tool, came under attack in my home state of West Virginia. Foresters stood shoulder-to-shoulder, but we lost ground steadily. Now school children are taught by propagandized teachers that clearcutting is a despicable and evil practice. The Pacific Northwest, probably the best timber-growing region in the world, has been lost to anti-utilization forces. Thousands of families and hundreds of communities have suffered in the name of the Northern Spotted Owl. The public does not understand that the owl was never the real issue; it was merely the excuse used by those determined to stop timber cutting and destroy the timber industry. Increased paper, lumber, and housing costs; use of metal studs in construction; and even lowly plastic bags in grocery stores testify to our defeats. There are those among us who say it is not "us against them," as if we can wish an enemy out of existence. "Ecosystem management,""sustainable forestry," and a dozen other vague and meaningless terms are incorporated into the surrender document. Some of our number are even accepting the ludicrous notion that forests should be returned to some "pre-settlement" condition. Should we do the same for agricultural land so we can all starve? The flag under which SAF should rally should proclaim our devotion to science-based forest management, with the main focus on furnishing basic human needs…wood for shelter, paper, and hundreds of other necessities. I, for one, would rather lose under that standard than see SAF become just another weak and vacillating organization under the banner of political expediency. Foresters know how to grow trees on a sustained basis, and that is the primary strength of our profession and its reason for existence. We have demonstrated time and time again that good forest management is compatible with the other uses of the forest: watershed, wildlife, and recreation. We have a proud history, but do we have a future? The forestry profession is viable only as long as forest industry is strong. Park rangers do not need forestry degrees! I recognize this is not an uplifting "all-is-well" message. I truly fear for the future of the profession and SAF. A vote for me is a call to battle. I cannot promise victory, nor can I promise fame and glory. If you join me, I must warn you that your character, motives, and intelligence will be assailed. But you will know you fought the good fight. Perhaps we can reverse a prophecy I penned some time ago in somewhat biblical form.

"In the latter days an anti-wise-use force will arise and will deceive many. It will reign for one generation. Mills will be closed, prices will rise, and once-productive forests will be filled with dead and dying trees. The sound of the saw and the ax will be heard no more. The woods will be the habitation of agitators, negotiators, and commentators. But this too shall pass. There will be wailing and gnashing of teeth. The people will cry, "Why are we wasting this renewable resource? We cannot afford homes as our fathers before us, and lowly paper is beyond our means. Ecosystem management is a false god with a thousand faces, equating humans and salamanders, and calling no management ‘good’ and good management ‘bad.’ It is used by those destroying our means of production." And a new generation of foresters will come forth, once again guided by science-based reason and the knowledge that the stand has always been the basic silvicultural unit, and timber the most important product of the forest. It will be understood that man cannot live by bread and shelter alone, but he surely cannot live without them."

Tuesday, June 23, 2015

Notes from the Road (1) - Loading Big Wood

Out on the road last week, it occurred to me that some of what I do and see out there would interest a few of you, occasionally. So I'll start a new series, Notes from the Road, that will feature brief clips of what people are saying and doing out there in the world of wood. Maybe I'll go back and re-post a couple of previous notes from my travels for you newer readers.

The thought occurred to me just as a couple of forklift operators were set to load a trailer in Winchester, Virginia, last week. It's an example of something I thought other people would be interested in do they get those whole-house truss packages on the trailer? They used to stack smaller bundles on the trailer, and then strap the whole thing together...but that took a lot of time.

Now, with some planning, care, and synchronization, they can do it all in less than three minutes. Pretty ingenious.

Wednesday, June 10, 2015

World of Wood 2015

I hinted a couple of months ago that we would be holding something big this summer at Penn State. Just how big, I didn't fully realize. This is going to be bigger than the time Mrs. O'Leary's cow kicked over the lantern while it was being milked. Although with less destructive results, hopefully.

World of Wood 2015 will soon be upon us. From July 20th until the 23rd, some of the most interesting wood people in the world will descend on State College to discuss just about every issue, every detail, every lignocellulosic factoid on wood known to man. Where else, tell me, where else where you be able to listen to a world-class furniture artist share his knowledge with you and then relax with a scientifically-developed ice cream cone?

Where else, tell me, where else, will you be able learn how DNA sequencing and high-resolution computer vision is being applied to the battle against illegal logging, and then compete in bidding for various fascinating specimens of [legal] exotic specimens of wood?

Where else, tell me, where else, can you learn to identify wood species by their cellular structure, and then apply that knowledge to identify the wood in a one-of-a-kind 18th-century piece of history?

Where else, tell me, where else, will you be able to learn about the fossil forests of Ethiopia, and then tour a world-class arboretum to see living relatives of those very fossils?

And where else, tell me, where else, will I be on July 20th, 21st, 22nd, and 23rd?

No where else than the World of Wood 2015.

Where else, tell me, where else, can you stand in the shade of a 100-year-old American Elm?

So, if you're not doing anything else the third week in July, and want to talk wood all week while sipping suds and soda, join me, The Wife, and about a hundred of only our closest friends in this extravaganza of xylophilic delight.

Who knows, you may find yourself the topic of a future post on Go Wood. :-)

Friday, June 5, 2015

Voices of the Future (14) - Ruffed Grouse and Aspen

by Justin Vinglas
Forest Science Major, graduated May 10, 2015

The ruffed grouse is a species that heavily relies on an aspen forest for its habitat, source of food, and protection from predators.  The dense young growth of an aspen forest provides a source of protection from predators for the grouse, and the flowering buds of the mature aspen trees is a major source of food for this game bird.  The reason these patches grow back so thick is because of the tendency of the aspen trees to root sucker.  Once a patch of large aspen trees are cut it exposes the ground to more direct sunlight which helps the buds on the root system of the aspen tree to sprout, and a thick layer of new aspen trees begin to emerge.  A single aspen tree can produce hundreds of new aspen trees.

This species relies on a mix of young and old aspen stands so the best habitat for this bird species is 5 to 20-acre aspen patches that are close together but of different age classes. Aspen trees that are around 15 years of age and older provide for the best sources of food where aspen trees that are this age and younger provide for the best source of cover from predators. The understory of the younger age class of aspen trees are good for young grouse chicks because there is not a lot of thick understory vegetation.  There is just enough vegetation for a food source besides the aspen trees themselves and the trees provide the source of cover.

One organization that supports the ruffed grouse habitat projects is the Ruffed Grouse Society.  This organization has been involved with ruffed grouse and woodcock habitat since the 1960’s.  This society provides financial and technical assistance to public agencies that provide early successional habitat for species such as the ruffed grouse.  They help to promote small block cuttings to the agencies that usually conduct large timber sales and cannot afford to conduct smaller sales that the ruffed grouse needs for survival.  They currently are hosting 700 projects across 28 states and their funding will exceed $4,000,000 from 1985 to 2014. I think that this society supports a good cause.

If we do not support these small scale timber sales that promote early successional habitat for the ruffed grouse, this species may eventually make its way to the endangered species list.  Many times it is not economically feasible to build haul roads and landings to harvest a small 5- or 10-acre block, so it is important that this society keeps funding public agencies so they can continue to manage for ruffed grouse.  I worked as an intern with the PA Game Commission for two summers and I know that this agency does a lot of work with the management of ruffed grouse as well.

I remember very well the day I heard my first ruffed grouse in the woods when I was twelve years old.  My grandpa and I were actually turkey hunting on a cool spring morning along the edge of a clearcut when off in the distance I could hear a faint thumping in the distance. I kept hearing it so I asked my pap what it was and he told me it was a ruffed grouse.  That same turkey season we began hearing them more and while moving into a new spot to turkey hunt one morning I flushed my first grouse.  As I grew older I became more interested in this game bird and found them to be very unique.  It was a very neat experience and I will never forget my first spring turkey hunt where I saw and heard my first ruffed grouse.

What I would like you to remember most from this blog post is that a timber sale does not have to be large to make an impact on wildlife, it can just be a small 5- or 10- acre aspen clearcut to make a world of difference for the ruffed grouse in your own forest.

Wednesday, June 3, 2015

Voices of the Future (13) - The Northern long-eared bat: how a small mammal nearly crippled the logging industry in the Eastern U.S.

by Aaron Yablonski
Wildlife and Fisheries Science Major, graduating May 2016

If I had a dollar for every time I have heard the phrase “bats are just rats with wings,” I would be able to afford a degree at an Ivy League university. Unfortunately, this is the way many people view these creatures. Due to decades of seeing movies about vampires who morph into our familiar flying friends, among other things, there has been a negative image of bats that cropped up but that has thankfully been fading away over the last few years.

In reality, bats are not the evil bloodsuckers of past nightmares but peaceful creatures that play an important role in not only the ecosystem, but also our economies. Many common bats in Pennsylvania are insectivores, meaning they subsist on a diet entirely consisting of bugs. These insects, which include gypsy moths, tent caterpillar beetles, and mosquitoes, can cause detrimental effects to both plants and humans. So instead of fearing these amicable creatures, we should be befriending them and in fact have been. However, over the last decade, bat populations have been under attack.

White nose syndrome is a deadly condition thought to be a fungus that has wiped out upwards of 99% of the bats in Pennsylvania. As a result of these dire circumstances and because of the bats’ value, steps have been taken to protect both them and their habitat.


Recently, there was a decision made by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to list the northern long-eared bat (hereafter referred to as the NLEB) under the protection of the Endangered Species Act. This is where the situation became a bit hairy. If the NLEB was listed as “endangered" under the ESA, the logging industry in Pennsylvania would have been decimated. PA is the country’s number 1 producer of hardwood, employs nearly 80,000 individuals in the logging industry, and sold roughly $17 billion in hardwood. Clearly, we value our wood. Under the ESA, a species that is listed as “endangered” may not be taken in any part of its range. No problem, right? Well see, with 112 known hibernacula spread out all across Pennsylvania and with a habitat of forestland the little buggers can’t easily be avoided. NLEB habitat is bound to be impacted by logging, it really is unavoidable. To avoid hefty penalties, it would be safer for companies to avoid logging in certain areas altogether. This leaves very little industry. 


Obviously listing the NLEB as “endangered” isn’t the best idea since we still want our precious wood. And of course we can’t do nothing to help protect it since it is so essential to us. So what could we do? Thankfully, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service decided to list the NLEB as “threatened” with a 4 (d) rule. Without this 4 (d) rule, the bat would have been essentially an endangered species. What this basically does is list it as a threatened species, but allows exceptions to be made so that certain activities will not be as heavily impacted by the listing. This listing lets the logging industry continue in areas where the NLEB occurs, but under heavy restrictions. 
Under the listing, harvesting of trees may not occur within 0.25 miles of a known hibernacula, cutting occupied roosting trees during the pup season (June and July) is prohibited, and clear cutting within 0.25 miles of a maternity roost during the same time period. Personally, I believe these restrictions are still not suitable protection for the NLEB. According to the USFWS’s conference on the NLEB in January of 2014, there should be a minimum 1.5 mile buffer zone around roosting trees in the summer, suitable forested habitat within 5 miles of a hibernaculum in late summer and the fall, and minimal noise disturbance during the winter months. These restrictions under the listing clearly contradict what the conference had decided was appropriate. Why did the USFWS say one thing and do another? I could write an entire blog post about what I think is the real reason ($$$) but this isn’t the time or place for that discussion. 

These restrictions are based around providing suitable habitat for the bats to recover and frankly, 0.25 miles isn’t going to cut it. Have you ever been within that distance of a logging operation? Do you think you could take a proper nap that close to one? Unless you sleep like the logs being produced, I don’t think so. These bats are already in a vulnerable state with white nose syndrome and excessive noise won’t do them any favors. Furthermore, during the pupping season, females need to have an increased intake of food in order to supply their offspring with the proper nutrients. Large roosts are going to need much more space than 0.25 miles in order to feed themselves. 

Despite all that the USFWS got wrong, this decision is a step in the right direction. Their decision will not in fact cripple the logging industry in Pennsylvania while providing the first step in recovering an incredibly important pest control species. We as citizens should continue to fight for the protection of our bats until they get the care they need and deserve. For now however, we must take what is given to us and be grateful. 

Friday, May 29, 2015

Voices of the Future (12) - Wetland Draining: A Concern For the Future

by Shawn M. Seely
Wildlife and Fisheries Major, graduating May 2016

As I drive to and from school every day on Pennsylvania Interstate 99 my curiosity has always been sparked by the little wetland areas along the highways that sometimes have water in them but for the most part are dry. I know from traveling that they are not just on interstate 99 but they are along many highways as well as housing complexes and business corporations.

I have always wondered what exactly they were doing in this more populated area which, at one point, was under heavy construction. As I have taken classes, here at The Pennsylvania State University on wildlife and ecology I have learned that these little wetlands were put in in place of ones that were once destroyed by the construction of these highways and buildings. These are known as mitigated wetlands. To better understand this it is best to know that in order for land to be considered a wetland it is required to have hydrophilic soils, plants, and contain water above or just below the surface for most of the year.

I often wonder which of these three requirements must be in place for the state to require mitigation permits to be in place as the highways and buildings are constructed. As I really look into these wetlands along interstate 99 I have noticed most of them look like at first they were great attempts with nest boxes put up around them and if there was water or even wetland plants at least in some of them. As a need for wetlands and biodiversity increase and many wetland species are very sensitive to change, the mitigation of destroyed wetlands is not taking the place of the once strong supporting wetlands. As regulated by DEP (Department of Environmental Protection) these new wetlands are supposed to be a 1:1 size ratio with the original and in forested wetlands there is even 2:1 ratio. Also, they are required to meet the same functions and values as the original wetland as well as planting of locally-native hydrophilic plants.

One of the biggest renewable resources that are being depleted is fresh water. Wetlands are one of the largest filters for rainwater and run-off that we have on earth. Here is video of a well-known scientist giving us the meaning of a wet land.

Many people have little to no knowledge of the need for these small, but largely diverse, ecosystems. As the world’s population is increasing we are in need of more farm land. As a result we are draining wetlands in the midwest (prairie pothole region), which is the number one breeding ground for 80% of the nation’s waterfowl population. Overall, there needs to be more strict regulations on the mitigation end if we are going to allow the delineation of the original ones. DEP states that there is a minimum of 5-year monitoring on the wetland to be sure that it is fully functioning. As I see in many areas, these wetlands along highways are very dry and need longer monitoring periods to ensure they are functioning properly. Here is another video put together by Ducks Unlimited of Canada that really drives home the importance of wetlands and the constant struggle to keep them from being destroyed.

Personally, I think that there need to be more heavily-enforced rules on the mitigation of these wetlands as well as raised awareness of their importance to our environment and to the people who use them. More people use wetlands indirectly than they even realize. If you haven’t noticed all of these wetlands along our major highways please take the time to notice them as some of you drive by them every day commuting to work. Take the second to notice the dried up land and lack of biodiversity as well as the dilapidated nesting structures placed nearby that have not been maintained. If you are interested in ways you can do more to protect your wetlands as well as improve them you can contact and join organizations like Clearwater Conservancy, Ducks Unlimited, Society For Wetland Scientists, and your local government officials about the maintenance of the already existing wetlands.

Wednesday, May 27, 2015

Voices of the Future (11) - On Reintroduction of Species

by Shelby Harkless
Wildlife and Fisheries Science major, graduating Spring 2016

In terms of policy, there are very few set guidelines when it comes to the reintroduction of a species. There are a few guidelines from the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA), but these only account for animals born or held in captivity, and they are not widely enforced. The IUCN does have guidelines on the reintroduction and translocation of species, but does not touch on specifically monitoring the stress of the individuals. Since the AZA and IUCN do not hold any legal power, it is essential to form laws ensuring reintroductions are performed as appropriately as possible, with minimal stress. This is a critical topic since it is believed we are entering the next great extinction. To slow, or counteract this process, we are able to take measures to reintroduce extinct or extirpated (absent from a specific area) species back into their native environments. Every species found on Earth has a specific niche within its ecosystem. Even the smallest organism can impact all other species found around it, from bacteria to wolves, with its absence.

Regulating reintroductions is near to my heart because it is the topic of my honors thesis. Sources to reference for your own personal gain will be cited numerically in parentheses, with their accompanying information listed at the end of this post. I am researching how the stress of an individual arctic ground squirrel affects their dispersal and survival rates after being introduced into an area in Kluane National Park, Yukon Territory, Canada where the species was previously extirpated (1). The squirrels were tracked using radio telemetry to determine survival and dispersal using GPS. The new environment was also altered in one of four different ways (tall grass no artificial burrows, tall grass with artificial burrows, short grass no artificial burrows, and short grass with artificial burrows) to determine if habitat type may determine the habitat use by the animals. In previous studies, it has been shown that increased stress, determined by measuring fecal glucocorticoids, will cause higher mortality and higher dispersion (2).

If studies such as mine can show that lower stress does in fact improve survival and lower dispersion, then it would be critical to ensure lower stress in future attempts. This can be accomplished by performing several different methods of reintroduction. For example, my experiment used soft release and hard release methods to compare how they affected the stress level of the individual. In the soft release, the squirrels were placed into holding cages for approximately two weeks to acclimate to the area. Inside the cages, the squirrels were protected from all predators, provided with fresh water and food, and also provided with shelter from the elements before being released into the new area. Once released, the animals were still able to enter the cages which were now open, and were also still protected by an electric fence for an additional two weeks. On other hand, the hard release squirrels were immediately released into the new area without any acclimation period or assistance.

This comparison will be beneficial to determine if acclimation to the area can affect the outcome of the reintroduction as a whole. If an elevated stress level does hinder the success of the reintroduction, then every measure which could possibly lower the level should be taken. Future studies should take this into account. Similar to my study, others should use a variety of methods to determine which will result with the least amount of stress on the animal. At first, this should be practiced with smaller, less endangered animals at first to improve the quality of the attempts. Once this has been perfected, it can be used with more vulnerable animals which cannot afford to be lost to poor practices.

Since reintroductions are performed at the collegiate, state, and even national level, a national policy mandating stress evaluation be conducted during a reintroduction should be established. This way, all parties involved would fall under the same guidelines. There are some rather simple ways to make this happen. You can simply talk to your state legislature to educate them about the issue and solution, or bring it up to the ecology/wildlife and fisheries departments of colleges and universities. I believe educating the source of the reintroduction itself is key to ensure people are willing to abide by the new practices. Laboratories which are able to perform the stress analysis need to cooperate with this new procedure in order to ensure its success. With your help, we can help improve the success of future reintroductions of our precious species.

1. Wheeler, Helen C., and David S. Hik. "Arctic Ground Squirrels Urocitellus Parryii as Drivers and Indicators of Change in Northern Ecosystems." Mammal Review 43.3 (2013): 238-55.
2. Sheriff, M. J., et al. "Mountain‐top and valley‐bottom Experiences: The Stress Axis as an Integrator of Environmental Variability in Arctic Ground Squirrel Populations." Journal of zoology 287.1 (2012): 65-75.