Thursday, November 20, 2014

An Uplifting Story from the Coast of Maine

Several folks have asked about Carol Chang, one of our 2013 Penn State graduates who has been profiled here on Go Wood, since she got out into the world. I updated the original post with the news that she had been hired by Weatherend Furniture of Rockland, Maine, shortly after that post, thanks to Collin Miller of the Northern Forest Center who shared the post around with his industry contacts. That simple act of extra effort by Mr. Miller resulted in the realization of a great career opportunity for a young woman who just needed a chance to show what she could do.

Well, thanks to Mr. Miller and the good folks at Weatherend, she's gotten that chance.

November 19, 2014
Good afternoon Dr. Ray,
How have you been? I just wanted to let you know that I am doing well and learning so much here in Maine. Gil, president of Weatherend, has been so great to work with. He truly believes in me and has put me in multiple Auto CAD training sessions. I have designed my first piece to add to the our product line. My task was to design an outdoor kitchen cabinet. Below is the link to my cabinet design.
http://weatherend.com/furniture/appliance_cabinet/
I also run our photo shoots which is incredible, especially along the Maine coast. I still can’t believe that this is my career now! I wanted to take some time to say THANK YOU! 
I have been here at Weatherend for one year in August and I plan to be here longer. Rockland is great! A very small town but with great people, outdoor activities, and food! 
Have a blessed week! 
P.S Attached is a shot of the entire company (roughly 40 employees) at the Rockland Breakwater Light House. 
Carol Chang  
Product Development Manager  
Weatherend Furniture

Here's that shot of the great folks at Weatherend on a typical lunch break. Pretty nice. I think that's Carol in the blue shirt sitting on the rocks, looking quite happy.


Here is Carol's first professional design.


And here are some other Weatherend products featured in the photo shoot she coordinated.











Great products, and a great photographs. Looks like Weatherend management has recognized and is tapping another aspect of Carol's artistic eye and talent. You have to respect the company's approach to employee development, which appears to be slow, thoughtful, thorough, and open to fresh eyes. When that kind of attention is paid to employees, good things happen.

Good for you, Carol, and our best GoWood wishes to all at Weatherend Furniture.

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Commercial of the Year

The Go Wood Woodie Award for the Best Commercial of the Year goes to....

[drum roll]


SPDR ETFs Carpenter Commercial!




I have no idea what SPDR ETF's are, and what they have to do with the Leaning Tower of Pisa, but I get the point...they conquer complexity with precision. Whatever they are, I'll take ten dollars worth.

Tuesday, November 18, 2014

Wood Science 101 (18) - The Yew of Olde

Dear Chuck, I loved the article on Yew wood. I have a question. Taxus, poison, is it the basis for "Taxotere" a chemotherapy drug. I had to endure a couple of rounds with the "bugger juice" and it about killed me. Just wondered. 
Also, I grew up in England and lived very close to Kingly Vale on the South Downs. There are a few very old Yew Trees still there, the area was decimated by Henry II outfitting his archers with strong bows - the forest never recovered. Yew trees were really hated by my father who said the ground was poisoned after a yew was planted - and at my house this is certainly so, very little else has been successful after I "busted a gut" getting one out on the front of my house. 
Love your articles...Wendy, wife of he who get-eth your epistles....
Thanks for your note, Wendy. It gives me a chance to expand on the points you've raised.

Yew is indeed a rich wood. The taxine in yew that is so toxic to humans and animals has, in fact, been of scientific interest in cancer research since the early 1960's. It was then that a botanist named Arthur S. Barkley collected a sample of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) among four hundred other species, and from that sample the unique story of yew in the fight against cancer began. A drug called paclitaxel was developed from certain taxine extracted from the bark of the yew, and the drug was used for decades against breast, ovarian, and lung cancer. But by the 1990's, a movement had sprung up against the harvesting of the paclitaxel, more commonly called taxol, because the harvesting of the drug resulted in the death of the trees from which it was harvested. Pacific yew, which had been on the decline for centuries, was listed on the IUCN "Red List" of near-threatened species.

However, in the good way that necessity always leads to invention, other, similar drugs were synthesized from species such as hazel (Corylus spp.) and the more common European yew (Taxus baccata). The Taxotere drug you endured (also marketed as Docetaxel and Docecad) is an esterified product of 10-deacetyl baccatin III, which is extracted from the renewable and more readily available leaves of Taxus baccata. So you can feel good that your treatment was derived from a sustainable process and that for the foreseeable future, others will be able to share in your treatment, rough as it was. Hopefully, its work is done and you'll not need to endure it again.

Now, on the other, more delightful point you raised from your childhood memories. Yes, yew has a storied history in England, including the fact that yew trees were planted around most of the old cemeteries in the country so that the prolific roots, of which we've already spoken, could both grow through the eyes of the dead to prevent them from seeing their way back to earth, and to prevent them from rising from the ground. Both you and I could testify to the strength of that yew root system. And, as a bonus, the poisonous yew acted as a great passive deterrent to cattle which liked to trample sacred ground for the fresh grass. Even cattle are apparently smart enough to learn to avoid things that kill their buddies.

But the greatest and most famous use of yew was for the the longbows of the archers of England.

What of the bow? The bow was made in England:
Of true wood, of yew wood, The wood of English bows;
So men who are free
Love the old yew tree 
And the land where the yew tree grows.
- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, The White Company, Chapter Six.
These longbows were things of legend, as were the men that wielded them. Here's a great little story from The White Company that left an indelible imprint on millions of young readers over more than a century, back before the invention of the cellphone turned their interest to other things...

A sunburnt and black-eyed Brabanter had stood near the old archers, leaning upon a large crossbow and listening to their talk, which had been carried on in that hybrid camp dialect which both nations could understand. He was a squat, bull-necked man, clad in the iron helmet, mail tunic, and woollen gambesson of his class. A jacket with hanging sleeves, slashed with velvet at the neck and wrists, showed that he was a man of some consideration, an under-officer, or file-leader of his company.  
"I cannot think," said he, "why you English should be so fond of your six-foot stick. If it amuse you to bend it, well and good; but why should I strain and pull, when my little moulinet will do all for me, and better than I can do it for myself?"  
"I have seen good shooting with the prod and with the latch," said Aylward, "but, by my hilt! camarade, with all respect to you and to your bow, I think that is but a woman's weapon, which a woman can point and loose as easily as a man."  
"I know not about that," answered the Brabanter, "but this I know, that though I have served for fourteen years, I have never yet seen an Englishman do aught with the long-bow which I could not do better with my arbalest. By the three kings! I would even go further, and say that I have done things with my arbalest which no Englishman could do with his long-bow."  
"Well said, mon gar.," cried Aylward. "A good cock has ever a brave call. Now, I have shot little of late, but there is Johnston here who will try a round with you for the honor of the Company."  
"And I will lay a gallon of Jurancon wine upon the long-bow," said Black Simon, "though I had rather, for my own drinking, that it were a quart of Twynham ale."  
"I take both your challenge and your wager," said the man of Brabant, throwing off his jacket and glancing keenly about him with his black, twinkling eyes. "I cannot see any fitting mark, for I care not to waste a bolt upon these shields, which a drunken boor could not miss at a village kermesse."  
"This is a perilous man," whispered an English man-at-arms, plucking at Aylward's sleeve. "He is the best marksman of all the crossbow companies and it was he who brought down the Constable de Bourbon at Brignais. I fear that your man will come by little honor with him."  
"Yet I have seen Johnston shoot these twenty years, and I will not flinch from it. How say you, old war-hound, will you not have a flight shot or two with this springald?"  
"Tut, tut, Aylward," said the old bowman. "My day is past, and it is for the younger ones to hold what we have gained. I take it unkindly of thee, Samkin, that thou shouldst call all eyes thus upon a broken bowman who could once shoot a fair shaft. Let me feel that bow, Wilkins! It is a Scotch bow, I see, for the upper nock is without and the lower within. By the black rood! it is a good piece of yew, well nocked, well strung, well waxed, and very joyful to the feel. I think even now that I might hit any large and goodly mark with a bow like this. Turn thy quiver to me, Aylward. I love an ash arrow pierced with cornel-wood for a roving shaft."  
"By my hilt! and so do I," cried Aylward. "These three gander-winged shafts are such."  
"So I see, comrade. It has been my wont to choose a saddle-backed feather for a dead shaft, and a swine-backed for a smooth flier. I will take the two of them. Ah! Samkin, lad, the eye grows dim and the hand less firm as the years pass."  
"Come then, are you not ready?" said the Brabanter, who had watched with ill-concealed impatience the slow and methodic movements of his antagonist.  
"I will venture a rover with you, or try long-butts or hoyles," said old Johnston. "To my mind the long-bow is a better weapon than the arbalest, but it may be ill for me to prove it."  
"So I think," quoth the other with a sneer. He drew his moulinet from his girdle, and fixing it to the windlass, he drew back the powerful double cord until it had clicked into the catch. Then from his quiver he drew a short, thick quarrel, which he placed with the utmost care upon the groove. Word had spread of what was going forward, and the rivals were already surrounded, not only by the English archers of the Company, but by hundreds of arbalestiers and men-at-arms from the bands of Ortingo and La Nuit, to the latter of which the Brabanter belonged. 
"There is a mark yonder on the hill," said he; "mayhap you can discern it."  
"I see something," answered Johnston, shading his eyes with his hand; "but it is a very long shoot."  
"A fair shoot—a fair shoot! Stand aside, Arnaud, lest you find a bolt through your gizzard. Now, comrade, I take no flight shot, and I give you the vantage of watching my shaft." As he spoke he raised his arbalest to his shoulder and was about to pull the trigger, when a large gray stork flapped heavily into view skimming over the brow of the hill, and then soaring up into the air to pass the valley. Its shrill and piercing cries drew all eyes upon it, and, as it came nearer, a dark spot which circled above it resolved itself into a peregrine falcon, which hovered over its head, poising itself from time to time, and watching its chance of closing with its clumsy quarry. Nearer and nearer came the two birds, all absorbed in their own contest, the stork wheeling upwards, the hawk still fluttering above it, until they were not a hundred paces from the camp. The Brabanter raised his weapon to the sky, and there came the short, deep twang of his powerful string. His bolt struck the stork just where its wing meets the body, and the bird whirled aloft in a last convulsive flutter before falling wounded and flapping to the earth.  
A roar of applause burst from the crossbowmen; but at the instant that the bolt struck its mark old Johnston, who had stood listlessly with arrow on string, bent his bow and sped a shaft through the body of the falcon. Whipping the other from his belt, he sent it skimming some few feet from the earth with so true an aim that it struck and transfixed the stork for the second time ere it could reach the ground. A deep-chested shout of delight burst from the archers at the sight of this double feat, and Aylward, dancing with joy, threw his arms round the old marksman and embraced him with such vigor that their mail tunics clanged again. "Ah! camarade," he cried, "you shall have a stoup with me for this! What then, old dog, would not the hawk please thee, but thou must have the stork as well. Oh, to my heart again!"  
"It is a pretty piece of yew, and well strung," said Johnston with a twinkle in his deep-set gray eyes. "Even an old broken bowman might find the clout with a bow like this."
Now that's a story worthy of its wood. Wendy, Sir Conan and I dedicate it to the memory and good old common sense of your father.

And for everyone else, here's a pretty good video on yew from the land of the longbow.


Monday, November 17, 2014

Wood Science 101 (17) - Yew Better Know Your Wood

Back in the spring, I was doing some yard work that included winching out several old stumps of Japanese yew (Taxus cuspidata) that I had cut down seven years earlier. They were pretty bad boys and resisted the call of the winch; my friend's Jeep was sliding sidewards across the parking lot and the cable was singing as the root balls clung to their Mother Earth. But finally, stubbornly, each one came out with a groan and a crackle.

After the sounds of our ritual grunting died down, I examined the roots. Amazingly, they had come out nearly completely intact. The roots were thick, and still fleshy and pliable after all those years sitting dead in the dirt. But they were semi-rigid, and made quite interesting pieces. My friend suggested mounting a big bass in front of each, but I had another idea.

I had begun work on a large (440-gallon) aquarium project. These root balls, I thought, would make great structure in the tank for my pet fish to lounge around. And sure enough, the next day, the roots were dry and fully rigid...they looked great and were the perfect size to fill the large tank and still leave great swimming space for the fish.

Perfect for the tank! I think...

But the next morning, my very first thought on awakening was...Yew?! That's poisonous, isn't it?

Sure enough, a quick check confirmed that not only is yew poisonous, but it is one of the very most poisonous trees, with numerous recorded cases of livestock and human deaths due to ingestion of the branches and needles. In fact,
"The poisonous nature of the yew plant has been cited since the second century B.C. (Bryan-Brown, 1932). Julius Caesar (102–44 B.C.) documented an instance when Catuvolcus, the king of Eburones, poisoned himself with yew ‘juice’ (Fröhne and Pfänder, 1984). Celts committed ritual suicides by drinking extracts from yew foliage and used the sap to poison the tips of their arrows during the Gaelic Wars (Foster and Duke, 1990 and Hartzell, 1995). Some primitive cultures even used extracts as fish and animal poisons to aid in hunting (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962 and Hartzell, 1995). During the 18th and 19th centuries, people in Europe and India used decoctions of yew leaf as an abortifacient and an emmenagogue (Bryan-Brown, 1932 and Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962)."
- Taxines: a review of the mechanism and toxicity of yew (Taxus spp.) alkaloids. Wilson, Sauer, and Hooser, Toxicon, 39:2-3, 2001.
I also discovered that yew poisoning is a real concern among wood turners, who love the look and feel of a well-turned yew bowl or pipe. But after a morning of on-line investigative work, I still hadn't convinced myself that there was any real danger to the fish. After all, the root wood was old and dead, right? And even though horses had been killed by ingesting only a few small needles, there wasn't any case I could find of fish being killed by yew. Sure, there was one landscaping site that recommended keeping yew away from outdoor ponds. But that was, I reasoned, to keep falling needles out of the water. What are the odds that there was enough poison in roots to kill fish? OK, maybe fresh roots...but not seven-year old dead roots, surely.

My first thought was to just stick the thing in there, and watch for any signs of distress. But the thought of twelve-inch barbs going belly-up within seconds (which is the speed that taxine, the poison in yew, can cause heart arrest in horses) gave me pause. And even though the taxine is not supposed to be water-soluble, I have several fish that like to chew on wood to remove the slime...might they trigger a Fish-bola extermination one day while I was away at work?

So, I got scientific, and brought some samples to work. Here, I recruited Brett Diehl, whom you've seen in a previous GoWood video on lignin, to run a mass spectrometer analysis for me to ascertain if there was indeed any detectable taxine. For comparison, I brought in some fresh yew parts and set Brett to work.

A few days later, the results were in. Not only was there taxine in the old root, but both components, taxine A and taxine B, were there in almost identical footprints as in the fresh root and needles. That meant that in fact, the poison was not water-soluble, since it remained essentially the same in the root material for years in the ground and not leached away. So, no danger of the fish dying within seconds of putting the root in the tank. But, several species of my fish are voracious eaters of plants and plant material, and the odds of one nipping off a root tip and heading on to Davy Jones' locker were just too high to risk.

So, I gave up on the yew root idea and bought some plastic plants. Oh, I and did manage to find some wood after all...the smaller pieces on the left-hand side of the tank are mopane (Colophospermum mopane), with a 12% MC specific gravity of 1.08, and the larger piece on the right-hand side is a great specimen of African leadwood (Combretum imberbe) which at 12% MC specific gravity of 1.22 is reported to be the sixth heaviest wood in the world. I can attest to that...the piece in the tank, which was given to me by a generous collector in New Jersey, weighed thirty pounds dry and was a heck of a challenge to get in the tank.



So, be careful on that next wood project, and if you or your loved ones are going to be chewing on it, be sure and do your homework. I was amazed to discover how many woods are poisonous. Quite enough for a future post on GoWood, I guess.

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Wood Identification in Context - The Fallon & Wilkinson Experience

Last month I had the opportunity to attend what I think is a unique experience in learning about wood. There are other wood identification short courses out there, and we occasionally teach them at Penn State, but this one included a unique perspective that I wanted to experience. It is a two-day course...in the first day, the class is a hands-on laboratory of whittling wood samples and grappling with the concept of transverse, radial, and tangential planes of view.

But the second day, the class moved to the campus of Yale University, where a collection of antique furniture resides. Tad Fallon and Randy Wilkinson, as professional furniture conservators, have had the opportunity to help the museum staff identify and verify several of the pieces in the study. In the class, they lead the students through the same thought process they go through when looking at pieces that are worth thousands, even millions of dollars. And it is a real learning experience, indeed.

With their permission, and the permission of the Yale Furniture Study, I'd like to share a little of that experience with you.

In our first video, Randy Wilkinson goes through a preliminary examination of a candle stand.




Next, Randy utilizes technology to examine the same piece up to 200x magnification to confirm the preliminary finding using the more technical aspects of wood identification learned by the class on the first day.



A little later, we moved into the "Tall Clock Row" of the collection, where Randy did a nice comparison lesson on a couple of clocks that could have fooled me on cursory visual inspection, mainly due to the colors.





We'll finish with an interesting introduction and demonstration of a high-tech secretary demonstrated by one of the collection's curators, John Stuart Gordon.


All in all, this was one of the best, if not the best, learning experiences I've ever attended, with a value far higher than the cost of the course. And I was at a disadvantage, not being an expert on antique furniture like the other students, who were mostly antique furniture appraisers and collectors. I'm thinking of learning a little bit about our furniture forebears, and attending the course again next year.

If you'd like to learn more about wood identification in the most interesting context possible, consider putting the course on your schedule next year. More information can be found here.

And if you're interested on seeing and learning more of the Yale Furniture Study, FineWoodworking.com has a great audio slideshow here.

Friday, November 7, 2014

Standing on Guard for the Land of Pines and Maples

Over the last couple of years, my favorite football teams have been kind of hard to watch...and one night about eighteen months ago, out of curiosity, I paused a few minutes on the hockey channel to watch the Pittsburgh Penguins.

What a mistake. I am addicted. Haven't missed a Penguins game yet this season...even though I'm not sure I always understand what's going on out there. Hockey is a sport that was unwatchable on TV before the advent of 60-inch high-def screens, because you just couldn't see that darn puck. But now, thanks to the big screens and super-slow motion cameras everywhere around the rink, those of us who didn't grow up with stick in hand can now at least partially enjoy the game.

But those penalties are hard to figure out. Smashing into an opponent seems to be a good thing to do, except when it isn't. Over the eighteen months of watching hockey commentators explain the games, I'm still not sure when a check is legal and when it isn't. And hockey folks aren't real good at explaining the nuances...



For instance, last night, the Penguins played the Winnipeg Jets. Both teams were on five-game winning streaks. The Penguins have been making the games look like a cross between the Ice Capades and the Harlem Globetrotters, with blades flashing and pucks flying into the opponents net seemingly at will. Their new coach routinely explains his strategy with precision, and the guys execute the game plans with precision. This, I thought, was great hockey. Until I learned, last night, I still don't understand what makes great hockey.

All of a sudden, the Penguins were brawling every time one of the Jets gave them a dirty look. The Jets, for their part, were equal to the task...at one point, one of the Jets who happens to be named after a professional boxer, grabbed a Penguin jersey with one hand, and reaching out with the other, grabbed the chinstrap of the Penguins player, daring him to remove his helmet. Which our guy seemed glad to do, and the Jet player graciously responded in kind, and the brawl was on.



And the action continued to escalate through the game...



This semi-controlled chaos continued to escalate until the game was decided by shoot-out in the Penguins favor.

Now, you might think that the Penguins and their disciplined coach were embarrassed by getting lured into playing so out-of-character. Actually, not so much. Star player Sidney Crosby commented after the game, with a smile on his face, what a fun game it was and how it was nice to see everyone standing up for each other. And the straight-laced coach admitted that it was perhaps the most entertaining game the Penguins had played yet this year. In short, a good time was had by all.

Now, we know that Canada is a little different from the U.S., as Sarah and the Crazy Canadian Woodworker have so well demonstrated in prior posts. And even though hockey isn't just a Canadian sport, it was invented there by a bunch of college students in Montreal back around 1875. And so, it is as distinct from similar but tamer sports (American football and basketball, soccer, and rugby) as a game could be. For one thing, the ice is a great equalizer, so that even the smaller guys can compete, especially if they can fight.

But there is a disturbing evolution in the game that should be corrected. All hockey sticks used to be made of wood. But nowadays, professional players are switching to sticks made of graphite, and even though they add more "whip" to shot than the wooden sticks, they break much easier. I actually saw one stick break in a player's hands when a puck shot by another player hit it in flight. Now, a good wood stick wooden do that.



One last note on this hockey Friday...my new fascination with the game has forced me to face a harsh reality...The Canadian nation anthem "O Canada" is way better than our "Star-Spangled Banner."

The Canadian anthem is so good I sing along with it when we play the Canadian teams, and now my two youngest kids think we're Canadians. It's got a great melody, it's very singable, and you never hear a singer mess up the lyrics, which happens routinely with the Star-Spangled Banner. When you sing "O, Canada, we stand on guard for thee!" you actually feel like you're standing on guard for the Canadian homeland...although you're not quite sure what you're guarding against (Mountain pine beetles? Moose in heat strolling down through the town? Americans escaping Detroit?).

And if you don't buy that this song is really that good, look at the second verse...

O Canada! Where pines and maples grow,  Great prairies spread and Lordly rivers flow! How dear to us thy broad domain, From East to Western sea! The land of hope for all who toil, The true North strong and free! God keep our land, glorious and free. O Canada, we stand on guard for thee! O Canada, we stand on guard for thee!

You gotta love a country where pines and maples make the national anthem.

And one where the folks really sing it...even in two languages.




Thursday, October 23, 2014

How Product Diversity and Cost-Cutting is Killing MacDonald's, and Possibly Your Business

Wow, I'm falling further and further behind on my wood-related blog posts every week, as I scramble to cover too many bases, and more and more of you send me great ideas to cover. Keep the suggestions coming in, I'll get caught up sooner or later.

But today, I'm going to divert off wood specifically to talk about the weird trends in our economy, and how I believe the signals are being misread by so many. In the news yesterday was McDonald's quarterly report revealing that their profits are off by 30% from the same time last year, on a 3% drop in sales. Watch the whole video below, the reporters' comments tell a lot about the companies issues.




As they mention, increasing raw material (food) and labor costs are hurting...but the meat of the story (sorry) is in the comment..."Is their food real?"

Sad to say, Mickey D's management hasn't realized their food quality problem, as they've been busy expanding their menu and tearing down old kid-friendly restaurants and building new, trendier hangouts that look more like Starbucks and Panera. It is a classical case of newly-minted executive MBA management not liking "the horse that brung 'em."

I noticed the same thing with Wendy's a few years ago when good old Dave passed away. You remember friendly old Dave, he was always on TV telling you how the quality of their food was the first principle of the business. And Wendy's undoubtedly sold some of the freshest food you could get in a fast-food chain. But within a month of Dave's passing, I noticed an odd thing in Wendy's burgers...the bun's started tasting like cardboard, the burgers no longer had crunchy lettuce and onions on them, and the fries were different. In fact, the new management, under the leadership of Dave's daughter as I recall, was taking them in a new direction, toward a more diverse menu. But in the process, the old reliable burgers and fries suffered.  And they are still that way today. I quit going to Wendy's.

Just this afternoon, I decided to test McDonald's once again, in order to make sure this post was spot on. As I pulled up to the drive-through window, I noticed how big the menu was. For years (decades!), up until a couple of years ago, I had simply ordered the Quarter-Pounder with Cheese Meal, super-sized the fries and drink, and added an apple pie if I was hungry. But today, I noticed myself weighing the options...would it be a salad, or a "Southern-style" (yeah, right) chicken sandwich, a McWrap, or something else? In all, their were sixteen "value meals" along with three other full boards of menu items, so many that I didn't even have time to scan them all. I decided to give the old stand-by a try.

Now before I go any further, let me digress a little. For years, when I spoke at short-courses and industry meetings on quality control, I usually included a little anecdote about McDonald's versus Burger King burgers. I actually like the taste of a well-prepared Whopper better than a Quarter-Pounder, but I had found out based on 10,000 or so personal test points that Whoppers are more variable...and the likelihood of getting a really dry or crappy Whoppper was fairly high, and depended on the attitude of the cooks that day. In contrast, McDonald's has always excelled in quality control...a Quarter-Pounder in California tastes exactly like a Quarter-Pounder in Pennsylvania, every day of the year. So, when I get ready to pull over, I have to make a mental decision...do I want a Quarter-Pounder that I can rely on, or take a chance that the Burger King isn't suffering from a hangover? Usually, I pulled into Mickey D's. A great tale on the value of quality control.

So, as to my lunch...well, to use the common vernacular, it sucked. The bun was dry and the texture of the meat was somewhat like...well, it was like nothing else that I can recall eating. I understand why folks are questioning whether the food is real, or not.

But the nub of this story is, that the declining quality of the Quarter-Pounders, Whoppers, and Wendy's Singles is not the price of great alternatives on their menus...rather, it is symptomatic of companies losing focus on what they do best, to try to do more, with the result being mediocre at it all.  Want to know why sales are down at these chains? It's not because they offer too little variety, or too few personal options as most commentators are suggesting...but it is because everything they offer in their new product strategies is mediocre.

One company that hasn't yet fallen for this siren call is Chick-Fil-A. Sure, they've added a couple of salads for those grazers who have to sit with their chicken-sandwich-loving friends and relatives. But the Chick-Fil-A menu is still basically...chicken. And it's good. And that fact is related in the company's profits. Look at the last column of the chart below, and notice how much higher the sales-per-store figure is for Chick-Fil-A than their competitors.

Source: http://www.qsrmagazine.com/reports/qsr50-2013-top-50-chart

Chick-Fil-A's success is the result of focus on what their company does best. And they generate those numbers in six-days-a-week, instead of their competitor's seven. A pretty good business model.

So, what has this got to do with the wood industry? I suspect you're way ahead of me by this point, but let's click it off one point at a time.


  1. The necessity economy.  While the government data-crunchers continue to tell us of the solid growth in the economy, they mean that sectors supported by public spending are doing well. Businesses selling real goods know that practically every other sector is soft. And companies that are selling to the middle class, the engine of our economy, are finding that costs are swelling much faster than customers' appetites for new floors, cabinets, or furniture. Fast food chains and Wal-Mart are struggling not because people want more selection, and only marginally because the internet is offering that selection, but because generally, people are getting used to a family budgeting paradigm of less spending on prepared food, clothes, and furniture. Utilities, insurance, higher mortgages and rents, and taxes are taking much larger shares of everyone's wallets these days, so demand for non-essentials is soft with no real surge in sight.
  2. Customer focus on quality. With that reduced budget for non-essentials, people are being more selective with their purchasing decisions. Here in the western world, we have so much stuff that we've reached the point that we don't need more of the same old same old...but we will buy better. Kitchens will be upgraded, but the upgrades will provide value for the dollar spent. Homes will be built, but quality features will be the selling point over generic size. Furniture buyers are looking for that unique piece to complement their room, not a full suite of new, mass-produced sameness. Customers have the tools at their disposal to comparison-shop like never before...and they will find and purchase value. Slick salesmanship of extra inventory won't work nearly as well as it used to.
  3. Producer focus on what the company does best. The companies that prosper in the coming tough years will be those that understand what their best product is, and shift more resources to that product line. More sales, marketing, purchasing expertise, and manufacturing technology will be committed to becoming the best in the world at making that product, instead of diluting those resources over a too-broad product line. Focus on improving that line, and the options it is offered in, but don't try to offer so many different lines that customers get distracted from their purchasing intent. Nowadays, when people walk into a showroom, they are looking for a specific product, and they are looking for the best they can get. If you make it, they will buy from you...but if your competition makes a better one, they'll figure it out and buy from them. You're better off not to make a mediocre product, and lose their business, than to make it, and lose it anyway.
  4. Continuous improvement in the face of competition. No market ever stands still, and companies must be committed to continuous improvement of their products, services, and processes to deliver them. Managers must be fully committed to hiring and keeping only the best employees, and investing time and money into them. Ideas must be encouraged, and implementation of great ideas must be fanatical. Have you ever had a great idea, only to see a competitor come out with it while your company is still talking about it? Don't let that happen again.
  5. Avoid the "all things to all people" syndrome. It doesn't work.
Which brings me back to McDonald's. Their sales are declining even as they rebuild chic new restaurants and serve tofu burgers and organic mocha latte.  Why? Because those people, the folks who frequent Starbuck's and Panera, were never their biggest fans, and never will be. Management of McDonald's may like those hipsters better than the moms and dads with carloads of noisy, messy three-year-olds, and good-old-boys in pickups with a hankering for a heavy dose of carbs, protein, and sugar, but those are the folks that made McDonald's what it is, and they will stay away from the new, toned-down, quiet shrines of mediocre food. They want Ronald, and climbing structures, and inexpensive, good food. If management of McDonald's wants to really be successful, they'll re-focus on that model and figure out how to deliver it in a clean, healthy, bright, format. And the business will come flooding back.

And please, bring back those fried apple pies! The baked ones taste like the cardboard they come in. I Go Wood in almost everything, but I draw the line at chewing cellulose in my dessert.





Thursday, October 16, 2014

Great Designs in Wood (60) - "Harmonie Hall"

Here's a well-named building in Kobe, Japan, that demonstrates another fundamental truth about building with wood...that wood makes every other building material look better through association.

Harmonie Hall, Kobe, Japan. Photographer:Tomoki Hahakura Source: http://www.dezeen.com/2013/06/24/harmonie-hall-by-takenaka-corporation/

"The Kobe International Junior High School and Senior High School Harmonie Hall was based on an idea of a clear and open axial plan utilising concrete and wood to respond to the campus' history while creating a new relationship with the natural landscape. Harmonie Hall is an ancillary facility that includes a teacher's room, storage, toilets, and a gymnasium that can be used as both a basketball court and an auditorium.
This building is designed to capture the most from the rich surrounding environment while inheriting the formal language of the campus as it exists today. Functionally, gyms tend to be enclosed spaces removed from their surrounding environment, but this time, by utilising a wood structural frame, the building is in concert with the vibrant local environment as much as possible.
The context for this project was a combined junior and high school located in the peaceful hills overlooking Suma with a view of the Akashi Straits and Awaji Island. This school was established in 1992 with aims to foster women with prolific knowledge and grace, and the campus has since been designed with the theme that the campus has made an impression on their memory." 
- http://www.dezeen.com/2013/06/24/harmonie-hall-by-takenaka-corporation/ 
Harmonie Hall, Kobe, Japan. Photographer:Tomoki Hahakura Source: http://www.dezeen.com/2013/06/24/harmonie-hall-by-takenaka-corporation/
 Go here for a great slide slow and write-up of the building...

Build a concrete building, and you've got a bunker. Build a glass building, and you've got a cold, inefficient gallery. But add wood, and you've got harmony of material...a warm, inviting habitat for humanity...and a great addition to the planet.

Friday, October 10, 2014

Great Designs in Wood (59) - "Treet"

Aasmund B. wrote from Norway yesterday to confirm that yes, they are indeed proud of the heritage evoked by their "stavkirkes". But he also wanted the world to know that the Norwegians are taking the lead in modern wood construction by building a 14-story wooden building, called "Treet", in Bergen.

Thanks again to the excellent efforts of folks at reThinkWood, we have a video that tells us about the Bergen project, including great design and project justification detail. Naturally, as this is a Scandinavian project, this is not for bragging rights...the project is all about function, efficiency, and stewardship of the earth. As it should be.




In an interesting twist of history, the Battle of Bergen in 1181, the time of  construction of the famous stavkirkes, helped establish Bergen as one of the major centers of trade in Northern Europe in the 13th century. This interesting battle was between a group called the "Birkebeiners" (meaning "birch leg-ers", or something like that...some of the Birkebeiner army were apparently poor people of the forest, and wore birch-bark leggings and shoes) and the "farmers army", who were apparently trying to foist a fake king on the land. During the ongoing civil war that carried on for decades after the battle, the brave Birkebeiner rescued the true king, a two-year old waif named Haakon Haakonsson, and trundled him away over the mountains in the dead of winter to safety.
...In 1202, when King Sverre died, he had managed to acquire most of Norway, but in Østerdalen, the Baglers were still very powerful. Sverre's death meant some decrease in the power of the Birkebeins. His successor, King Haakon Sverresson, died only two years later, leaving his son Haakon Haakonsson as the ultimate target for the Baglers to get rid of the Lord on his dark throne. In 1206, the Birkebeiners set off on a dangerous voyage through treacherous mountains and forests, taking the now two-year-old Haakon Haakonsson to safety in Trondheim. Norwegian history credits the Birkebeiners' bravery with preserving the life of the boy who later became King Haakon Haakonsson IV, ended the civil wars in 1240 and forever changed Northern Europe's history through his reign.
-source: Wikipedia 

Skiing Birchlegs Crossing the Mountain with the Royal Child, painted by Knud Bergslien. Painting located at The Ski Museum. Holmenkollen, Oslo, Norway. Source: Wikipedia.
This romantic event is still celebrated every year in Norway, and around the world where Norwegian descendants reside, with festivities...
Today, the historic event of the rescue of Haakon Haakonsson is honoured in Norway by three annual sporting events, a run, Birkebeinerløpet; a mountain bike race, Birkebeinerrittet; a cross-country ski race, Birkebeinerrennet and, beginning in 2012, Landeveisbirken, a road bicycle race. Common for the bike and ski events is the requirement of carrying a backpack weighing 3.5 kg as a remembrance of the child the Birkebeiners had to carry on their journey. The bike and ski events start in Rena and all three events finish at Lillehammer. There are also sister cross-country ski races held in Hayward Wisconsin (USA) (the American Birkebeiner), in Edmonton (Canada) and in Falls Creek (Australia).
Wooden churches, birch bark leggings, toddler kings, and now the tallest wooden building on Earth. Just a small part of Norway's rich contribution to a world Going Wood.

Thursday, October 9, 2014

Great Designs in Wood (58) - The Stavkirke

Another of the seemingly endless testimonies of wood as the greatest of building materials is the stavkirke, or stave church. These ancient buildings of worship were built centuries ago and stand today as testaments to the wisdom and skill of their builders.

The stavkirke in Urnes, Norway is the oldest, built in 1130...just about the time the Chinese were building the Sakyamuni Pagoda that we looked at in GDiW(11).



The largest is in Heddal, Norway, and was built about a hundred years after the smaller church in Urnes.



To those who think that "saving trees" by discouraging the use of wood in buildings and other products is the way to save the planet, consider how long the carbon in those church logs has been sequestered...centuries longer than all the other 12-century trees in that region, which have died and returned their carbon to the atmosphere.

And besides saving the planet, these old wooden churches probably helped saved a few souls as well. Not a bad return on investment for labor and lives well spent.

Friday, October 3, 2014

Great Designs in Wood (57) - The L'Aquila Earthquake Recovery Project

On April 6, 2009, a major earthquake rocked the ancient town of L'Aquila, Italy.
"The earthquake caused damage to between 3,000 and 11,000 buildings in the medieval city of L'Aquila. Several buildings also collapsed. Two hundred and ninety-seven people died in the earthquake, including six Macedonians, two Czechs, five Romanian citizens, two Palestinians, one Greek citizen, one French citizen, one Ukrainian citizen and one Israeli citizen, and approximately 1,500 people were injured. Twenty of the victims were children. Around 65,000 people were rendered homeless.
The main earthquake was preceded by two smaller earthquakes the previous day. The earthquake was felt as far away as Rome (92 kilometres (57 mi) away), in other parts of Lazio, as well as Marche, Molise, Umbria and Campania. Schools remained closed in the Abruzzo region. Most of the inhabitants of L'Aquila abandoned their homes and the city itself; in the city centre of L'Aquila, and the nearby village of Paganica which was also badly damaged, many streets were impassable due to fallen masonry. The hospital at L'Aquila, where many of the victims were brought, suffered damage in the 4.8 aftershock which followed the main earthquake an hour later. Powerful aftershocks, some only slightly weaker than the main shock, were felt throughout the following 2 days.
Many of L'Aquila's medieval buildings were damaged. The apse of the Basilica of Saint Bernardino of Siena, L'Aquila's largest Renaissance church, was seriously damaged, and its campanile collapsed. Almost the whole dome of the 18th-century church of Anime Sante in Piazza Duomo fell down. The 13th-century Basilica di Santa Maria di Collemaggio collapsed from the transept to the back of the church, and Porta Napoli, the oldest gate to the city, was destroyed. The third floor of Forte Spagnolo, the 16th-century castle housing the National Museum of Abruzzo, collapsed, as did the cupola of the 18th-century Baroque church of St Augustine, damaging L'Aquila's state archives. This church had been rebuilt after it was destroyed in the 1703 earthquake. The Cathedral of L'Aquila has lost part of its transept and maybe more with the effects of the aftershocks. Slight damage was also reported to the Baths of Caracalla in Rome, but other Roman monuments such as the Colosseum and Roman Forum were unharmed.
While most of l'Aquila's medieval structures suffered damage, many of its modern buildings suffered the greatest damage, for instance, a dormitory at the university of l'Aquila collapsed. Even some buildings that were believed to be "earthquake-proof" were damaged. L'Aquila Hospital's new wing, which opened in 2000 and was thought capable of resisting almost any earthquake, suffered extensive damage and had to be closed."
- Source: Wikipedia 
The devastation and shock of that day looked frightfully familiar...



The silver lining of this dreadful episode...new building codes have been implemented, codes that reflect the growing awareness that wood is man's best friend, at least when it comes to building. Especially hopeful is the last thirty seconds of the following video, in which the narrator acknowledges that man has always known the value of wood in construction, and points to some great examples of that knowledge.


By Going Wood again, Italians are rediscovering the wisdom of the ages. I only wish our American regulatory folks would wake up. More on that in the next post.

Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Great Designs in Wood (56) - The Tall Composite Structure

I've posted videos before on this topic, and the good news is, that they keep getting better. Which is a sign, I think, that this concept has legs. Best sign of all is that young, sustainability-oriented minds seem to really latch on to the concept. And as they do, the concept of the wooden, sustainable city comes that much closer to reality.


Friday, September 26, 2014

Go Climb a Tree

Well, what else are you going to do this weekend? Sit around and chow down on burgers and beer while watching forty-two football games? Come on, do like these guys, and go find a local tree to climb. Experience the exhilaration of swaying branches while breathing in clean, fresh air. This is the way to Go Wood.

Thursday, September 25, 2014

Great Designs in Wood (55): A Visit with Furniture Maker Mike Korsak

I was able to break free last week and visit Mike Korsak, a furniture maker with ties to Penn State. Mike sort of "evolved" into this entrepreneurial venture into furniture-making, and it's was nice to see someone with a desire and talent be able to get out and do his own thing for a living.

Mike specializes in what I would call "art" furniture...many of his projects wind up displayed in art galleries before moving on to their owners. Here's a link to his website, and below are a few examples of his work.

"Echo and Narcissus." These pieces are featured in the video.
An Asian-inspired bench.

And another view.

"Figured Out".



"In Time."



I hope you enjoy the visit...please excuse my limited videography skills. Technical difficulties forced me to have a commercial break, but please watch both segments, I think you'll enjoy.


And here's the shorter second segment...


Thanks to Mike for sharing a portion of his day with us.

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

Wood Science 101 (16) - Wood Weight Estimation Finally Pays Off

A couple of weeks ago, I was passed on an email with pictures from a Penn State student asking about the species of a log on display at a local bike shop. He wanted to know, because the log was the object of interest in a contest - guess the weight of the log and win a mountain bike. It looked like an oak, but I decided to stop by the shop since I go by it every day on the way home, just to confirm.

Measurement of the rays, which were very visible through the gashes in the bark from the grapple that skidded the log from the woods, confirmed that it was indeed a red oak, and probably a northern red oak (Quercus rubra) or a scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea).

Information conveyed back through channels to the student, I got to thinking about the poor, undernourished nine-year-old waif living under my own roof. Being the sixth of seven in the Ray clan, he had become quite used to hand-me-downs, and had never had his own new bike. Wouldn't it be fun, I thought, if we made an adventure of measuring the log together and entering the contest?

This undertaking, however, was fraught with potential downside...the biggest being, of course, that he wouldn't win, and I would fall forever from his eyes as the king of everything in the Kingdom of Wood. But, since I've discovered that Dad is pretty much completely discredited by the time each offspring reaches about the age of thirteen, I was only risking about four years. And, I figured since timber estimation has always been one of my strengths, we might actually have a pretty good chance. And if he won, the upside would be priceless.

So, on the last day of the contest, off we went to measure the log. It measured 8'4", with a 30-inch diameter at the top end and 38-inches at the butt. Since the butt had some pretty good swell, I figured a 33-inch average diameter, and a couple of eyeball measurements along the length made me feel pretty good about that estimate.

Now, at this point, I could have used any of a number of timber-estimation formulae that have been published over the last century. But, in a case like this, I always tend to follow the principle, Keep it Simple. And nothing is simpler than using a volume table built on empirical data.

So, once again, I conferred with Doctor Google...and found a Log Weight Chart at SherrillTree.com. The folks at Sherrill Tree, a company that sells gear for professional tree climbers, had posted a chart from the US Department of the Interior, which probably originally came from the US Forest Service. I knew this would be a pretty accurate reference since some government research team seventy-five years ago had probably spent years cutting and weighing green one-foot sections of different species of trees found in our forests.

Ah, the green thing. I knew that many of the contestants would look up the weight of wood and use a number from a dry-weight (12% moisture content) table. Sorry folks, not the right thing to do. I made sure to ask the owner when the log was harvested and weighed...did they weigh it right on the landing immediately after cutting, or did it sit around for a few weeks before they figured out which log was going to be used.

He confirmed for me that the log had been harvested the last week of August, and had been weighed immediately upon harvesting. Since we had a fairly normal, slightly cool and wet, summer, I figured the green weight data in the table would probably be about right, once I performed a little of my magic on it.

Part of that magic included figuring out the weight of that bottom foot of the log, which had a pretty good notch out of it. From the table I decided to apply 375 pounds to each foot of the log, 375 being my interpolation of the weights listed for red and white oak averaging between 32 and 34 inches average diameter. 375 times 8 gave me 3000 pounds. Now for that extra 4 inches and the notch.

Since I knew the butt was 38 inches in diameter, a further extrapolation from the table told me that a one foot section would weigh about 500 pounds. So, one third of that would get me an additional 167 pounds. Then I thought about all the notches I've ever hefted, and seventy-five pounds for a large one seemed about right. I closed my eyes, focused on the numbers in my head, and one visualized...3093.

So, we wrote down 3093 on Wesley's slip, and left the rest up to the timber gods.

Two days later, The Wife's phone rang, and the voice on the other end asked for Wesley Walker Ray. She mentioned that she was Wesley Walker Ray's mother, and what did they want with him?

She was astounded to hear, that Mr. Wesley had guessed the closest to the weight of the log...his guess of 3093 was only three pounds from the actual weight of 3090. He was the winner of a new $1,599 mountain bike.


The beginning of a great mountain biker.
We picked up his bike yesterday, and after being trained on all the high-tech functions of the bike by the good experts at The Bicycle Shop, Wesley mounted it and rode it home, climbing a darn steep hill in State College "using only half-effort" he yelled at us as we coasted along side him in the car. The smile on his face was bigger than those 29" tires on the bike.

So, Going Wood all these years has finally paid off for me. Guessing the weight of an oak log...$1,599. Seeing that smile...priceless.

Friday, September 19, 2014

Is There Anything Better than a Wooden Boat?...

...I found myself wondering, as I toured Giesler Boat Builders factory in Powassan, Ontario. The tour was part of the annual meeting of the International Wood Collectors Association that was held in nearby Huntsville, Ontario.

source: http://www.gieslerboats.ca/p53.htm

At the moment I was shooting the video below, I couldn't think of anything better than to own one of these beauties. I found myself thinking that wooden boats are one of those things that we modern folk think of as unobtainable playthings of the rich and famous, whereas this tour made me realize that hey, these are really practical products for real folks, and have been for centuries. Our tour guide (sorry, I lost his name) was simply great in his explanation and detail of the process, and by the time we were ready to leave I was sorry I didn't have the checkbook along.


From the Giesler website...
"Why buy a Cedar strip boat ?
There are several advantages of wood construction besides its natural beauty. 
First of all, wood has strength. The weight to strength ratio of wood is better than most other materials being used in boat construction. This means that wooden boats are lighter and stronger than most boats made from other materials. Wood will also withstand constant flexing, thus giving cedar strip boats a softer, quieter ride, even in the roughest waters. Wood boats are also easily repaired without the need for complicated equipment , hazardous chemicals, or extensive labour. With the development of new adhesives to make the joints water tight, advances in varnishes and paints to minimize maintenance, plus the natural beauty and warmth of wood, you can see that a cedar strip really is the natural choice."
 Now this is a great way to Go Wood.

Friday, September 12, 2014

How Man Conquered the World...Using Wood

Here's another Friday week-ender, this time from the creative folks at The Danish Wood Initiative.

It tells the story of how the wood industry was born, and why it will someday rule the world "in a good and wise way".


 

If this simple message is so compelling, you may ask, why don't regulatory agencies, like our own EPA, get it? You might not be surprised that the answer lies in the concept of organizational self-preservation. Forbes contributor Larry Bell explains the tangled web in his January 2014 article, EPA's Wood-Burning Stove Ban Has Chilling Consequences For Many Rural People. While it uses the case of wood-burning stoves and boilers as an example, the same process applies to regulation of furniture and panel emissions, factory and dust emissions, health and safety, forest management, and on and on and on.

This is a good opportunity to recognize all the good folks who are working to get the "Wood is Good" message out there. Waaaay too many to list here, but we know who you are...and we salute your efforts. Readers, why not acknowledge your favorite group in the comments below?

Go Wood!


Monday, September 1, 2014

Make Mine Freedom

Thought you might like something a little different on this Labor Day. In an interesting look at how university Extension has always used social media to educate folks, here's a cartoon from 1946 from the Economics Extension department of Harding College, now Harding University. This conservative little college in central Arkansas put at the core of its mission teaching fundamental American values, and produced a series of cartoons like the following that extolled the virtues of the American economic system.

At the time, with World War II over, war-weary folks all over the world were looking for new ways to cast off the old and usher in the new. Great Britain, in perhaps one of the most instructive elections in history, cast off the Conservative government of Winston Churchill in favor of the socialist Labour Party. British folks were tired of sacrifice and want, and voted for the folks who promised plenty. In Communist Russia, Joseph Stalin reached his pinnacle of power as his country's victorious repulsion of the German invasion promised a new era of peace and prosperity that the Communists had not been able to achieve in the previous twenty-nine years. China was only a couple of years from the Communist revolution of Mao Zedong, triggered by mass starvation in the wake of the disastrous war with the Japanese and subsequent Chinese civil war with the forces of Chiang Kai-shek.

The economic professors at little Harding College saw all this and, in response to the rise of American socialist and communist parties, decided to tell the story in the way that folks would understand. The result was this entertaining, educational, and stunningly prophetic cartoon entitled "Make Mine Freedom." It's a great view for a slow moment on a Labor Day holiday.


Listen carefully...much of what your hear will sound very familiar to you. In an especially prophetic moment, the seller of ISM promises "...ISM even makes the weather perfect every day!" They must have had their advocates of catastrophic climate change even back then.

The last two-and-a-half minutes are especially startling in the accuracy of its message.Labor and racial strife, crony capitalism, politically-correct public officials, and farm regulation that constrains production are all predicted as the inevitable result of ISM. It seemed humorous and practically impossible in the America of 1946...not so much so in 2014. As we discussed in this note of a couple of years ago, many wood products companies are feeling the pressure of the heavy hand of ISM these days.

Friday, August 29, 2014

Rare Reading: Hough's American Woods

Kim Steiner made me aware of a most unusual opportunity for the discriminating wood/book collector.

The Society of American Foresters, through the auction house of Bonham's of San Francisco, is offering for sale an original set of Romeyn Beck Hough's reference classic, The American Woods, with an expected selling price of $20,000 to $30,000. These books, which feature thin veneers of 324 species of wood found in United States in the 19th century, were subscribed to and purchased in individual volumes, most often by public libraries. However, complete fourteen-volume sets are extremely rare nowadays, thus the extreme price they bring at auction.

http://www.bonhams.com/auctions/21845/lot/219/

These books have a great history history.
"This remarkable work was the lifetime achievement of Romeyn B. Hough, who devoted himself to the study of American trees, and who is best known for his Handbook of Trees of the Northern States and Canada, long a standard reference work in American dendrology. In this work, Hough sought to describe the woods found in America, with a detailed description in an accompanying pamphlet, and with thin cross-sections of actual woods mounted and labeled in accompanying stiff cardboard mounts. These provide a unique record of American wood types, arranged geographically. Generally each species is shown with wood cut on traverse section, radial section, and tangential section. The samples are so thin as to be easily translucent. The age of these specimens gives them tremendous importance from an ecological standpoint, as well as their great interest to students of American furniture and woodcrafts. The trees available to Hough at the time make such an endeavor impossible to contemplate today. Parts I-IV cover New York and adjacent states, part V covers Florida, parts VI-X describe the Pacific Slope, parts XI-XII cover the Atlantic states, and part XIII southern Florida. Part XIV contained a continuation of the work on the trees of Florida with text by Marjorie Hough, using specimens and notes prepared by her father before his death in 1924.
Hough explained the unique nature of the work thus: it is `illustrated by actual specimens, and being in this way an exhibition of nature itself it possesses a peculiar and great interest never found in a press-printed book. The specimens are....about 2 x 5 in. in size, and sufficiently thin to admit of examination in transmitted light...Looked at in reflected light they appear as in the board or log... These specimens are mounted in durable frame-like Bristol-board pages, with black waterproofed surfaces...and each bears printed in gilt-bronze the technical name of the species and its English, German, French and Spanish names. The pages are separable...and are accompanied with a full text...giving information as to the uses and physical properties of the woods, and distributions, habits of growth, botanical characters, habitats, medicinal properties, etc..., of the trees...The woods used for the specimens are personally collected by the author and are sectioned and prepared by a process of his own device'.
Complete sets of this work are very rare. The volumes were priced at five dollars each, a high price reflecting the work involved in assembling them. Since subscribers came and went over the 25-year period of publication and many only bought the volume or volumes on the areas that interested them. The rarity of complete sets can be judged from the fact that Stafleu and Cowan record the work as being complete in 6 volumes."
- www.donaldheald.com 

But if you want to gain possession of the real thing, you have until September 22nd to do your research on the SAF set and settle your mind on your bid. If you win the bid, and care to share its splendor with the other readers of Go Wood, just let me know, and it will be so.

Good luck!

P.S. If, like me, you find the price of this set a little too steep, you can purchase a modern reprint of the set that has been released to rave reviews. Entitled "The Woodbook: The Complete Plates", it can be purchased online at Amazon.com.

Update, 10/21/2014: The collection was sold for $22,500, including fees.

Wednesday, August 27, 2014

Wood Is Alive!

Some have complained that cutting down a tree is killing a living organism. Philosophically, perhaps, it may be, although stump and root sprouting are scientific contradictions to that notion.  It's awfully hard to kill a maple forest with an axe.

Xylophiles (the Latin word for "wood-lovers") have always understood that wood is alive. Remember when Tess and I peered into that Australian blackwood table top in Bungendore, New South Wales? It was like peering into a dark, deep pool of water that sparkled with mystery. And what about that Sam Maloof rocker I filmed in Palm Desert? You can't watch that clip and tell me that chair isn't alive.

Well, wood artist Keith Skretch found a new way to illustrate the living spirit in wood. Watch and marvel. Thanks to the Woodworking Network and Keith Skretch for sharing.


Waves of Grain from Keith Skretch on Vimeo.

Mr. Skretch tells us that...
"To create this strata-cut animation, I planed down a block of wood one layer at a time, photographing it at each pass. The painstaking process revealed a hidden life and motion in the seemingly static grain of the wood, even as the wood itself was reduced to a mound of sawdust."
Stunning result. But it is a trick of the camera, after all, same as the movement of Mickey Mouse across the screen.

But my new friend and Go Wood reader Dr. Ho-Yang Kang of Chungnam National University in Korea sent me some short video clips that really, really, prove that wood is alive, and moves. First, we see a Western hemlock board getting cozy and cuddling up as it dries out under the warm breezes of forced-air drying.



Next, we see a cross-section of soft-hearted softwood begin to crack and shed a tear under the strain of being separated from its log mother.


And finally, we see a white-oak board doing a break dance.


Now, the wood isn't actually moving quite as fast as the videos imply. In fact, each frame of the video is a shot taken at fifteen minute intervals over a period of weeks. So, if you settle down to watch wood dance one evening, it's likely to be as entertaining as watching the proverbial paint dry. But, with patience, Dr. Kang has indeed proven that "Wood is Alive!" and actually does moves on its own.

For those of you who are wondering how that happens, watch future GoWood posts for an upcoming Wood Science 101 post on the wood drying process.

Friday, August 15, 2014

It's That Time Again to Start Thinking about Wood Heat

Well, maybe not down where you live, but The Wife and I were sitting out shivering at the public pool yesterday watching Little Rays #6 and #7 swimming. Yes, here at least, the autumn chill is starting to settle in, and of course, any logical person's thoughts turn to heating, and whether or not the wood pile is large enough.

More of that in future posts. This time, though, is a nice little video from the folks at the Biomass Energy Resource Center (BERC) up in Vermont, where winter and wood heating go hand-in-glove. Thanks to Adam Sherman of the center who shared this nice video with us.


Ahhh, I can already smell the hot cider! :-)

Tuesday, July 15, 2014

The Loggers of Hollywood

Went home for lunch yesterday, and walked in on my two littlest (ages 9 and 5) and another 9-year-old watching Rio 2, a colorful movie about a bunch of birds fighting for the jungle...against, you guessed it, a bunch of bad guys logging illegally with huge chainsaws and graders. Here's the plot, as its given in Wikipedia...

"Blu and Jewel enjoy life in Rio with their 3 kids, the oldest and music-loving Carla, book smart Bia, and the youngest and mischievous Tiago. Meanwhile, Blu's former owner, Linda Gunderson and her ornithologist husband, Tulio are on an expedition in the Amazon and eventually discover a quick-flying spix's macaw that loses one of its feathers. When word gets out about this through television, Jewel believes that they should go to the Amazon to help find the blue macaws.
Meanwhile, the leader of a group that is in a line of illegal logging named Big Boss, discovers Linda and Tulio's expedition to find the macaws and orders his henchmen to hunt them down to avoid disruptions to their work...While searching for the macaws, Linda and Tulio are eventually trapped by the loggers...Blu visits Tulio and Linda's site, where he discovers a broken CB Radio. After discovering the loggers are destroying the jungle, Blu sends Roberto (who followed Blu) to warn the flock as he saves Linda and Tulio. Blu persuades the macaws to defend their homes, and they easily outmatch the loggers with help from the Scarlet macaws and the other animals. Big Boss tries to blow up the trees as a back-up plan, but Blu steals the lit dynamite...[Finally] Big Boss is eaten alive by a boa constrictor." 
Good old family fun. I happened to walk in right when the loggers were chasing Linda and Tulio with their saws. The kids were glued, eyeballs wide as silver dollars.

That's how Hollywood sells movies these days. I'd be willing to guess that Corporate World has been the "bad guy" in 90% of the action movies since 1970. That makes at least two generations, now, that have been raised on a steady diet of producers killing the world.

It wasn't always this way. Movies, at least movies put out by the government, used to promote technological advances in industry as good things, to be aspired to and worked at. We saw one of them about two years ago in a great short about woodworking in the 1940's.  Here's another in the series, an excellent look at logging in 1940. In it, you'll hear that yes, logging and related practices were once wasteful and hard on the land...but that America had awakened to the danger and was now (as of 1940!) practicing productive, sustainable professional forestry. It's pretty much been just as depicted in the video, for the past 75 years!




Which is why we now have as much standing timber as we had 150 years ago. We adjusted our harvesting to sustainable practices, and the forest recovered after having supplied the wood for every city, town, and home in our booming country.

The next to last line of the movie is a pretty succinct statement of what foresters have been trained since, well, forever...
"If you do go into forestry or one of the industries, you will be part of work that has a future, for the aim of all foresters and far-sighted owners of timberlands is a perpetual supply of products through proper management."
Modern portrayal of the logging profession and timber industries paints the whole barrel in the same light as the occasional bad apple, and extrapolates the negative impact to mean permanent deforestation the world over. Which will happen, I suppose, about the time that Richmond, Virginia, becomes a coastal resort. My 5- and 9-year-olds will not let that happen. They will save the world, right along with the millions of others that don't seem to understand that demand must have a supply to be met, or things will get ugly. Ironic, isn't it, that the Battle of Rio to save the rainforest is set in a country that today has riots in the streets as people starve in massive ghettos.

I started to walk out of the room after watching a few minutes of the birds battling the loggers. But I couldn't resist turning back and saying to the kids, "You guys know loggers really aren't bad guys like that, right?" To which my son replied, "They're chopping down all the trees!"

"Well, loggers only chop down enough trees for us to use to build things out of wood. And then the forests they cut down grow back..."

The 9-year-old neighbor girl cut me off at the pass. "They're going to build a city there!" she exclaimed, her eyes bright with passion. "But they wouldn't build a city in the middle of the jungle," I kindly explained. "Yes, they're going to cut down the whole jungle!"

I was defeated, right along with Big Boss and his Amazon loggers, and retired to do battle another day.

I retreated back to my home office, where, while pondering this exchange, I happened upon the following video. It's an excellent, high-quality story produced by the BBC about the story of the forest ecosystem...how a fish feeds trees, and how insects feed Canadian lynx.



The video is a full hour, and I suggest you watch when you have the time. But I want to take you to a sequence beginning at 24:30, where begins an interesting explanation of the relationship between the Canadian lynx, the snowshoe hare, and the spruce budworm.

The British host tells an interesting story of the Canadian lynx, and his preference for a tasty snowshoe hare now and then. And how the hare depends on low-growing forage and cover, that wouldn't be there if it weren't for timely infestations of the spruce budworm. He explains...
"Now...the springtime assault by these caterpillars is bad news for the trees...but for other inhabitants of this forest, these caterpillars are heroes." 
"Whilst these dramatic natural events might be a catastrophe for the established trees, for anything trying to grow on the forest floor, they're an absolute bonus. In here where it's dark, there is little, very poor diversity, just some mosses and a few ferns. But as soon as there's a break in the canopy, and the sunlight can flood in, well, look at the difference.  Lots of wild flowers, there's a young maple coming through here, there a mountain ash, and most importantly of all, regenerating spruce and fir.
Now, the hares essentially need these regenerating conifers as shelter. And of course, what's good for the hares, is good for the lynx...And that's why the lynx needs the caterpillar." [Cut to shot of deer grazing in an open meadow. Point proven.].
Now, any resident of Maine and Quebec can tell you that a little spin is being applied here. The story infers that the spruce budworm is a convenient forest pest, one that opens nice little openings in the forest floor that shelter bunnies and feed deer, thereby creating a link in a cozy little natural cycle of life.

The reality is slightly different...
"Bob Wagner, a University of Maine forestry professor, describes Maine’s upcoming spruce budworm infestation as a slow-moving hurricane. The state’s large landowners, forestry experts and policymakers know it’s coming and can track its path south from Canada. They estimate the pest will start destroying forest stands in northern Maine within the next two to four years. And they know from previous experience that the damage to the forest products industry and, therefore, jobs could be extensive."
- Bangor Daily News, 12-29-2013 

So, in essence, the spruce budworm is poised to be, as it has been in past cycles,  a reason for forest devastation on a massive scale, magnitudes of order larger than any modern logging operations. And yet, the BBC can tell a pleasant story about the budworm opening a nice little opening in the forest canopy, while a logging operation that accomplishes the same ecosystem effect on a controlled basis, is demonized by Hollywood.

We have to get past the idea that if man does it, it must be bad. Millions of little minds, and their future means of having a good life, are at stake.

The birds won't be able to save us from misguided education and entertainment. Let's turn the story around.