The heft and feel of a well-worn handle,
The sight of shavings that curl from a blade;
The logs in the wood pile, the sentiment of huge beams in an old-fashioned house;
The smell of fresh cut timber and the pungent fragrance of burning leaves;
The crackle of kindling and the hiss of burning logs.
Abundant to all the needs of man, how poor the world would be
Without wood.

Everard Hinrichs, quoted by Eric Sloane in A Reverence for Wood


Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Another One in the Books

Well, here we are again...another year in the books.

We got 2014 started slowly, very slowly, with a wooden snow roller...

Said goodbye to old friends...

Listened to a tree tell us its sad story...

And watched a groundhog nearly leap to its death.

But things began to pick up on a trip down memory lane with Allison Logging in the 1930's, the most popular Go Wood post of the year...

And we surveyed the real value of wood in modern home construction.

We paid homage to some of the greatest of all wood of the simplest, and one of the most complex.

We kept a wary eye on that crazy world through the looking glass...and another on the tinsel-town world in which productive folks are nearly always the bad guys.

We learned how man conquered the world with wood...and then contemplated the functional beauty of wooden boat that got him there.

We experienced the thrill of victory...and rebounded with wood when Earth tried to deal our Italian friends the agony of defeat.

We (meaning I) nearly killed some little fish friends, but the experience brought us some great knowledge of European and American bow-woods.

And we experienced the joy of youth, both in going up the ladder, and going down a hill.

2014 brought a couple of little tweaks to Go Wood which you probably didn't notice, but one in particular should have significant impact on our ranks.  If you look at the top right-hand corner of this panel, you'll see a little box titled "Translate." Go ahead, try it. Click the little down-arrow and then pick your favorite foreign language. Amazing, huh? Now people can Go Wood in nearly one hundred different languages.

And by the end of this year, nearly half a million folks will have done just that. Thanks to all of you that make Go Wood what it is...just a simple source of woody inspiration.  Keep it coming in, and I'll try to keep it going out. More folks need to know about the miracle of wood, so keep tuning in and sharing with your friends.

Because what the world needs now, is wood, sweet wood.

Friday, December 26, 2014

Wood as a Fewel, According to Adam Smith

Everyone heating with wood, or thinking of heating with wood, soon or later gets around to considering the cost of doing so. Since heating with wood has been around since man discovered the benefits of fire, you might call this a problem for the ages.

It certainly was back in 1776, when our American forefathers were declaring their independence from our English cousins. Soon to experience dearly the value of wood as a source of heat in a tiny encampment called Valley Forge, George Washington and his men knew first-hand the value of firewood when one is cold.

Staying by the fire, even when Generals Washington and Lafayette rode by, was the better part of valor in the encampment at Valley Forge in the winter of 1777-78. Source:
Less noticed than the beginning of the War of Independence, an elderly Scottish professor published a book in that year of 1776 that was to become, over the ages, the most well-known and respected classic in the field of economics. Adam Smith's treatise, originally published under the scholary title An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, was later shortened into the now-famous The Wealth of Nations, and scholars still refer to its wisdom.

What? You've never read it? You've never lingered over one of the hundreds of delicious passages found in its 1,100+ pages? Then you may be surprised to know that professor Smith considered the cost of wood with respect to its competitor of the time, coal...and even displayed his knowledge of air quality, animal husbandry and forestry in the same passages. Enjoy.

"Coals are a less agreeable fewel than wood: they are said too to be less wholesome. The expence of coals, therefore, at the place where they are consumed, must generally be somewhat less than that of wood.
The price of wood again varies with the state of agriculture, nearly in the same manner, and exactly for the same reason, as the price of cattle. In its rude beginnings the greater part of every country is covered with wood, which is then a mere incumbrance of no value to the landlord, who would gladly give it to any body for the cutting. As agriculture advances, the woods are partly cleared by the progress of tillage, and partly go to decay in consequence of the increased number of cattle. These, though they do not increase in the same proportion as corn, which is altogether the acquisition of human industry, yet multiply under the care and protection of men; who store up in the season of plenty what may maintain them in that of scarcity, who through the whole year furnish them with a greater quantity of food than uncultivated nature provides for them, and who by destroying and extirpating their enemies, secure them in the free enjoyment of all that she provides. Numerous herds of cattle, when allowed to wander through the woods, though they do not destroy the old trees, hinder any young ones from coming up, so that in the course of a century or two the whole forest goes to ruin. The scarcity of wood then raises its price. It affords a good rent, and the landlord sometimes finds that he can scarce employ his best lands more advantageously than in growing barren timber, of which the greatness of the profit often compensates the lateness of the returns. This seems in the present times to be nearly the state of things in several parts of Great Britain, where the profit of planting is found to be equal to that of either corn or pasture. The advantage which the landlord derives from planting, can nowhere exceed, at least for any considerable time, the rent which these could afford him; and in an inland country which is highly cultivated, it will frequently not fall much short of this rent. Upon the sea-coast of a well-improved country, indeed, if coals can conveniently be had for fewel, it may sometimes be cheaper to bring barren timber for building from less cultivated foreign countries, than to raise it at home. In the new town of Edinburgh, built within these few years, there is not, perhaps, a single stick of Scotch timber.
Whatever may be the price of wood, if that of coals is such that the expence of a coal-fire is nearly equal to that of a wood one, we may be assured, that at that place, and in these circumstances, the price of coals is as high as it can be. It seems to be so in some of the inland ports of England, particularly in Oxfordshire, where it is usual, even in the fires of the common people, to mix coals and wood together, and where the difference in the expence of those two sorts of fewel cannot, therefore, be very great."
And he goes on from there to explain the reason coal and all other such commodities are limited by transportation and labor costs relative to their competitors.

I think you can see why The Wealth of Nations is such a classic. It's great reading, especially if you're a history buff...and the principles explained by Professor Smith still hold fundamentally true today. Consider these points in his passages above:

  • Coal was recognized as less "wholesome" than wood. (Although, coal's energy density is much greater than wood, making it more wholesome that the good professor probably understood, providing it can be burned cleanly. But cities of the times were shrouded with noxious clouds from the primitive coal stoves of the day, and indoor air quality was certainly one major source of  the health problems that prevailed.)
  • As a more abundant and concentrated commodity (in those places that had coal deposits), the price of coal (per unit of volume, we presume) would never exceed that of wood, since wood can be gathered and traded by individuals when coal becomes too dear. In today's context, we could say the same about all primary and alternative fuels...when they exceed the price of wood heating, people who have access to wood begin burning it. Which, by the way, is also why wood is and will always be a fuel of last resort, not of first resort...unless you're the owner of a productive woodlot.
  • Since wood is usually more expensive in more-developed countries, it will be common for wood to be imported for building purposes from less-developed countries. Back then, it was America...these days, it is New Zealand, Chile, and Canada. Like his amusing anecdote of "not a single stick of Scotch timber" in Edinburgh, it is today equally likely that there is not a single stick of Connecticut timber in New York City.
So, if you're heating with wood, consider yourself blessed. You're burning the most precious fuel in the world, in terms of fundamental economics. And you get to enjoy that crackle.

And if you're not...well, enjoy this for a while. I swear, I can feel the heat coming off the screen.

Tuesday, December 23, 2014

A Vision of Christmas Past

Christmas is a great time to feel sentimental. I'd just like to thank all you folks who've been kind enough to read Go Wood, and even more so to those of you who've written to add to the pieces with your own comments, or who have passed along more material.

And in the spirit of Christmas sentimentality, I like to share a short video I shot of two of the Ray clan seven years ago this season. The boys are a lot bigger now, and not nearly so cute...but the memory of them sliding down this hill in our yard on Christmas Eve is literally, for me, a vision of Christmas Past.

Here's to your own memories of Christmas Past, and blessings to you this Christmas 2014.

Peace on Earth, Go Wood toward man.

Tuesday, December 9, 2014

Things are Heating Up

Well, sorry to you wood burners out there, who are complaining that I haven't done more wood energy posts recently. Yes, I still love my wood stove...but my gas boiler and upstairs stove are so cozy, inexpensive, and easy, that, I admit it, I haven't yet starting burning wood. After Christmas I'll share more wood-energy stories with you.

Speaking of gas, I'll bet you've been a little befuddled by the controversy surrounding natural-gas production via hydraulic fracturing, or fracking. The issue, like so many others these days, revolves around different tellings of the story about the same process.

The telling that seems to get the most press is similar to the one told by The Sierra Club...

Hmmm...sounds bad. But there's another way to tell the story, and that is from a perspective from those who actually perform the production process. For instance, Marathon Oil Company shares this video which looks amazingly like the Sierra Club video, but with a few different details. See what you think.

I think the videos illustrate the concept that the more familiar you become with a product or process, the less (or more) you tend to fear it, depending on whether the thing is an honest attempt to improve life on this planet, or an inherently evil deception of the public trust.

Since I'm a believer in the general concept of "the more energy, the better", I tend to lend a higher level of credibility to the producers, whether they be oil companies, wind turbine companies, or loggers. My experience is that all are working to improve their production and delivery processes in order to enable more and cheaper production. Sure, they're in it to make money, but their profits in the long run depend on their being able to provide a sustainable, safe product.

A great case in point was the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico a few years ago. The company (or its sub-contractors) were apparently pushing the limits of safety and procedures, and a bad thing happened. There was an immediate outcry for more government regulation to ensure that it didn't happen again.

But my limited experience in the oil patch (and my more extensive experience in the timber industry) helped me understand that the incident would be studied intensively by BP and every other oil company in the world, because it cost the company billions of dollars. That alone is a far greater assurance of better, safer processes in the future. No company ever wants the environmental and public relations disaster that BP endured in the aftermath of that incident. Necessity naturally drives the invention of better production processes, at least in a competitive marketplace.

I understand that there is a general fear of the unknown, especially in these days when so much seems to be happening so quickly. But the solution to fear is education, so that the "fearful things" can be recognized and avoided. The opposing viewpoints represented in these two videos are both helpful in the educational process... and it should be our continuing resolution to ferret out the fears from the facts, and move forward when the safe, productive way forward is revealed.

After all, abundant, affordable, and clean energy is good for everyone. Everyone. Everyone.

Wednesday, December 3, 2014

Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Wood Science 101 (19) - The North American Bow-Wood

Last week we reveled in the properties and history of a great European tree, the yew, with specific focus on the legendary long-bows wielded by the British archers of a thousand years ago. But did you know that there is an American equivalent, a tree with wood of unique properties that has been utilized for many, varied uses, including wood for the bows of Native Americans?

Well, there is...and I stumbled across one yesterday in Winchester, Virginia. If you're a country folk, you'll recognize it by its unmistakable fruit.

The Osage-orange, or bois d'arc tree (Maclura pomifera), bears this somewhat unearthly-looking fruit pod. Slightly larger and heavier than a softball, many a young lad has had horse-apple fights with their buddies that ended up with in a sticky mess in someone's hair.

Birds seem to love the Osage-orange, and have contributed to the spread of the tree across the land.  As I stumbled around a stack of roof trusses in front of the tree, several dozen doves that were roosting under the tree scurried away in a whistle of wings.That greenish fruit is actually a conglomeration of around three-hundred seeds in a fibrous, gelatinous casing. They smell faintly like a honeydew melon, and larger animals somehow find them tasty...hence, the moniker horse-apple. Unlike the deadly yew, though, these trees are only a threat to insects, and the horse-apples were used in olden times as insect repellents in fruit and vegetable cabinets.

Nothing straight on a bois d'arc tree. Click on the picture and you will see the horse apples still hanging.

I was glad to see another old bois d'arc (pronounced bo-dark in East Texan)...they're not too common in Pennsylvania and this one in Virginia was the first one I had seen in a long time. Running across it the week of Thanksgiving brought back some old memories of my youth in Texas, where it seemed every fence line contained at least one bois d'arc mixed in with the cedars, yaupon, and cottonwood. With those big old green apples, bois d'arc command your attention, and they fascinated me...but those apples are just part of this great tree's story.

Early American pioneers discovered that the Osage nation of native Americans, which were roughly centered at the time of the American migration of the mid-nineteeth century at the convergence of Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas, had especially fine wooden implements, including their most feared tool, the bow. Bois d'arc (literally, wooden bow in French) became the moniker to the tree from applied by the early French explorers of the area, while to the English-speaking settlers, the tree was named Osage-orange by those who observed the Indians tanning their hides with the orange-colored tannins of the wood.
"Osage orange bow blanks and finished bows were prime items of barter among the tribes. One early report said a well balanced bow was worth a "comely young squaw" in trade. Another said that in the early 1800s the price of a good Osage orange bow was a horse and a blanket. Tribal wars were fought for possession of lands generously supplied with Osage orange trees.
So sought after was the Osage orange bow, it was used by Shawnee and Wyandotte Indians in Ohio and the Blackfoot Indians in Montana. The bows must have been traded over a distance of 2,000 miles.
Early French explorers came to associate the strong powerful bows with the Osage Indians and called the trees "bois d'arc" which means "wood of the bow." This French name was eventually pronounced "bodark," a name that continues to be used for Osage orange in some regions.
Indians had other uses for Osage orange. The stout wood was well suited for war clubs and tomahawk handles. The ridged and scaly bark of the trunk provided both a fiber for rope and tannin for making leather. Root tea was used to wash sore eyes. The roots and inner bark were used to make a light orange dye. Early pioneers adopted this dye for their homespun cloth and later it was used commercially to color the American forces' olive drab uniforms during World War I.
Pioneers found more uses. The wood's hardness and low shrinkage made it valuable for wagon wheel hubs and rims. Supposedly, the first chuck wagon ever built was made of Osage orange to withstand the terrible bumping of the Texas panhandle. Cattle yokes were fashioned from the many angled limbs.
Railroad ties, bridge pilings, insulator pins, telephone poles, treenails, street paving blocks, mine timber, house blocks (used instead of masonry foundations) and tool handles were all uses eventually added to the list. No doubt, some of the first telegraph messages sent west pulsed across parts of the Midwest on wires held aloft on Osage orange poles.
As early as 1806 President Thomas Jefferson referred to the Osage orange in a message to Congress. He had heard from British explorers of the Arkansas country about the tree's potential as a hedge plant, a potential soon to be realized."
- Jim W. Grace, The Enduring Osage-Orange, Missouri Department of Conservation 
You see, as useful as the tree was to our native populations and pioneers, the Osage-orange was soon to become the most-widely planted tree in American history for another, now-forgotten reason.
"It seems remarkable that a tree that produces no pulpwood, saw timber or utility poles has been planted more than any other species in North America. But in the 1800s, on the expansive prairies of a fertile new continent, before the invention of barbed wire, settlers needed fence. And Osage orange makes a great fence.
A single row of hedge trees planted a foot apart would yield a fence that was "horse high, bull-strong, and hog-tight" in 4 years. Some farmers would weave the already twisted and intertwined limbs of the young trees tightly together, a technique known as "plashing," for a more impenetrable barrier. Use of the Osage orange tree as hedge was so common throughout most of its introduced range that "hedge" became the tree's common name.
Few records exist about the extent of Osage orange hedge plantings in Missouri. In nearby Kansas, however, between 1865 and 1939, nearly 40,000 miles of Osage orange hedgerows were planted by private landowners. Prairie settlers in other states, including Missouri, also were planting thousands of miles of Osage orange hedge at this time.
Hedge nurseries sprang up to meet the burgeoning need for seeds and seedlings. Osage orange fruits, commonly called hedge balls or hedge apples, were covered with dirt and straw in the fall. In the spring, the seeds were easily separated from the rotten flesh of the fruit.
One hedge apple would yield about 300 seeds. One bushel of hedge apples in the fall - about 80 apples - would yield 24,000 seeds the following spring. The seeds were then direct-seeded into a prepared seedbed on the farm or planted at the nursery and sold as seedlings. Planting contractors were available to establish hedge rows for 37.5 cents per rod ($120 dollars per mile).
In the 1860s, the Osage orange market went wild. Prices jumped from $8 a bushel to $50 a bushel. In one year alone, 18,000 bushels of seeds were shipped to the northwest United States - enough seed to plant over 100,000 miles of Osage orange hedge! "Hedge mania," as one newspaper called it, was rampant.
A few scattered records give a glimpse of the intense planting period in Missouri: 1844 - Osage orange had been planted in Greene County; 1851 - the first Osage orange were planted in Holt County; 1852 - Osage orange hedges planted in Cass County proved successful; 1853 - Caldwell County: "In May 1853, Mr. Terrill had the hedge fence set out on the east side of his place. The seed for this hedge was brought. . . on horseback from Texas."
By 1879 Monroe County in northeast Missouri and Nodaway County in northwest Missouri each had over 2,000 miles of hedge rows, " . . . more than any other county in Kansas, Nebraska, or Iowa."
But in 1874, Osage orange met its match. A new invention, barbed wire, was now cheaper to use for fencing. Although the Osage orange planting storm had passed, the tree had been planted in all 48 contiguous states."
 - Jim W. Grace, The Enduring Osage-Orange, Missouri Department of Conservation 
Hedge rows, or early-American natural fencing. Interesting that a tree famous for it's bow-wood would be valuable as a hedge...another eerie similarity to its European bow tree, the yew.

There's another interesting story involving the Osage-orange, this time involving our fiery American patriot Patrick Henry. Henry, famous for this oratorical masterpiece...
"Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, Give me Liberty, or give me Death!"
...retired to a planter's life at his Red Hill, Virginia plantation and reached the end of his life on June 6, 1799. Upon his death, his attending physician was recorded to have rushed from the house and wept bitterly under a tree in front of the plantation house. This same tree is now recorded as being the largest Osage-orange in the country.

The U.S. largest Osage-orange is at Red Hill Plantation, Virginia.

Finally, though, we should touch on the really unique properties of the wood of Maclura pomifera. It is a heavy, durable wood, running about 54 pounds per dried cubic foot of wood at a specific gravity of 0.86. What makes it a great bow-wood is that the high modulus of rupture (MOR) with a relatively low modulus of elasticity (MOE). Which means, in laymen's terms, that it is pliable, not stiff, but very strong.

Now, Osage-orange is about 20% heavier than the yew, but it's ratio of MOR to MOE is nearly identical to yew. In an interesting article by Eric Meier of, yew and Osage-orange have "bow indices" of 11.52 and 11.51, respectively, and this rating is exceeded by only the rosewoods (Dalbergia spp.) and muninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) of common trees in the world. So it's no wonder that yew and Osage-orange were the preferred bow-woods of their day on their respective continents.

And, like another of our popular interesting woods, the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), it is extremely durable, and was used for fence posts that could stand fifty or more years in the ground.

So, that's an introduction to the Osage-orange, or bois d'arc tree and its wood. We'll leave this post, fittingly, with a picture of another seasonal use of the hedge apples...for Thanksgiving centerpieces.

There you go. Something to do while the turkey cooks, make yourself a horse-apple centerpiece.

And have a wonderful Thanksgiving while you're doing it. Go Wood.

Thursday, November 20, 2014

An Uplifting Story from the Coast of Maine

Several folks have asked about Carol Chang, one of our 2013 Penn State graduates who has been profiled here on Go Wood, since she got out into the world. I updated the original post with the news that she had been hired by Weatherend Furniture of Rockland, Maine, shortly after that post, thanks to Collin Miller of the Northern Forest Center who shared the post around with his industry contacts. That simple act of extra effort by Mr. Miller resulted in the realization of a great career opportunity for a young woman who just needed a chance to show what she could do.

Well, thanks to Mr. Miller and the good folks at Weatherend, she's gotten that chance.

November 19, 2014
Good afternoon Dr. Ray,
How have you been? I just wanted to let you know that I am doing well and learning so much here in Maine. Gil, president of Weatherend, has been so great to work with. He truly believes in me and has put me in multiple Auto CAD training sessions. I have designed my first piece to add to the our product line. My task was to design an outdoor kitchen cabinet. Below is the link to my cabinet design.
I also run our photo shoots which is incredible, especially along the Maine coast. I still can’t believe that this is my career now! I wanted to take some time to say THANK YOU! 
I have been here at Weatherend for one year in August and I plan to be here longer. Rockland is great! A very small town but with great people, outdoor activities, and food! 
Have a blessed week! 
P.S Attached is a shot of the entire company (roughly 40 employees) at the Rockland Breakwater Light House. 
Carol Chang  
Product Development Manager  
Weatherend Furniture

Here's that shot of the great folks at Weatherend on a typical lunch break. Pretty nice. I think that's Carol in the blue shirt sitting on the rocks, looking quite happy.

Here is Carol's first professional design.

And here are some other Weatherend products featured in the photo shoot she coordinated.

Great products, and great photographs. Looks like Weatherend management has recognized and is tapping another aspect of Carol's artistic eye and talent. You have to respect the company's approach to employee development, which appears to be slow, thoughtful, thorough, and open to fresh eyes. When that kind of attention is paid to employees, good things happen.

Good for you, Carol, and our best GoWood wishes to all at Weatherend Furniture.

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Commercial of the Year

The Go Wood Woodie Award for the Best Commercial of the Year goes to....

[drum roll]

SPDR ETFs Carpenter Commercial!

I have no idea what SPDR ETF's are, and what they have to do with the Leaning Tower of Pisa, but I get the point...they conquer complexity with precision. Whatever they are, I'll take ten dollars worth.

Tuesday, November 18, 2014

Wood Science 101 (18) - The Yew of Olde

Dear Chuck, I loved the article on Yew wood. I have a question. Taxus, poison, is it the basis for "Taxotere" a chemotherapy drug. I had to endure a couple of rounds with the "bugger juice" and it about killed me. Just wondered. 
Also, I grew up in England and lived very close to Kingly Vale on the South Downs. There are a few very old Yew Trees still there, the area was decimated by Henry II outfitting his archers with strong bows - the forest never recovered. Yew trees were really hated by my father who said the ground was poisoned after a yew was planted - and at my house this is certainly so, very little else has been successful after I "busted a gut" getting one out on the front of my house. 
Love your articles...Wendy, wife of he who get-eth your epistles....
Thanks for your note, Wendy. It gives me a chance to expand on the points you've raised.

Yew is indeed a rich wood. The taxine in yew that is so toxic to humans and animals has, in fact, been of scientific interest in cancer research since the early 1960's. It was then that a botanist named Arthur S. Barkley collected a sample of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) among four hundred other species, and from that sample the unique story of yew in the fight against cancer began. A drug called paclitaxel was developed from certain taxine extracted from the bark of the yew, and the drug was used for decades against breast, ovarian, and lung cancer. But by the 1990's, a movement had sprung up against the harvesting of the paclitaxel, more commonly called taxol, because the harvesting of the drug resulted in the death of the trees from which it was harvested. Pacific yew, which had been on the decline for centuries, was listed on the IUCN "Red List" of near-threatened species.

However, in the good way that necessity always leads to invention, other, similar drugs were synthesized from species such as hazel (Corylus spp.) and the more common European yew (Taxus baccata). The Taxotere drug you endured (also marketed as Docetaxel and Docecad) is an esterified product of 10-deacetyl baccatin III, which is extracted from the renewable and more readily available leaves of Taxus baccata. So you can feel good that your treatment was derived from a sustainable process and that for the foreseeable future, others will be able to share in your treatment, rough as it was. Hopefully, its work is done and you'll not need to endure it again.

Now, on the other, more delightful point you raised from your childhood memories. Yes, yew has a storied history in England, including the fact that yew trees were planted around most of the old cemeteries in the country so that the prolific roots, of which we've already spoken, could both grow through the eyes of the dead to prevent them from seeing their way back to earth, and to prevent them from rising from the ground. Both you and I could testify to the strength of that yew root system. And, as a bonus, the poisonous yew acted as a great passive deterrent to cattle which liked to trample sacred ground for the fresh grass. Even cattle are apparently smart enough to learn to avoid things that kill their buddies.

But the greatest and most famous use of yew was for the the longbows of the archers of England.

What of the bow? The bow was made in England:
Of true wood, of yew wood, The wood of English bows;
So men who are free
Love the old yew tree 
And the land where the yew tree grows.
- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, The White Company, Chapter Six.
These longbows were things of legend, as were the men that wielded them. Here's a great little story from The White Company that left an indelible imprint on millions of young readers over more than a century, back before the invention of the cellphone turned their interest to other things...

A sunburnt and black-eyed Brabanter had stood near the old archers, leaning upon a large crossbow and listening to their talk, which had been carried on in that hybrid camp dialect which both nations could understand. He was a squat, bull-necked man, clad in the iron helmet, mail tunic, and woollen gambesson of his class. A jacket with hanging sleeves, slashed with velvet at the neck and wrists, showed that he was a man of some consideration, an under-officer, or file-leader of his company.  
"I cannot think," said he, "why you English should be so fond of your six-foot stick. If it amuse you to bend it, well and good; but why should I strain and pull, when my little moulinet will do all for me, and better than I can do it for myself?"  
"I have seen good shooting with the prod and with the latch," said Aylward, "but, by my hilt! camarade, with all respect to you and to your bow, I think that is but a woman's weapon, which a woman can point and loose as easily as a man."  
"I know not about that," answered the Brabanter, "but this I know, that though I have served for fourteen years, I have never yet seen an Englishman do aught with the long-bow which I could not do better with my arbalest. By the three kings! I would even go further, and say that I have done things with my arbalest which no Englishman could do with his long-bow."  
"Well said, mon gar.," cried Aylward. "A good cock has ever a brave call. Now, I have shot little of late, but there is Johnston here who will try a round with you for the honor of the Company."  
"And I will lay a gallon of Jurancon wine upon the long-bow," said Black Simon, "though I had rather, for my own drinking, that it were a quart of Twynham ale."  
"I take both your challenge and your wager," said the man of Brabant, throwing off his jacket and glancing keenly about him with his black, twinkling eyes. "I cannot see any fitting mark, for I care not to waste a bolt upon these shields, which a drunken boor could not miss at a village kermesse."  
"This is a perilous man," whispered an English man-at-arms, plucking at Aylward's sleeve. "He is the best marksman of all the crossbow companies and it was he who brought down the Constable de Bourbon at Brignais. I fear that your man will come by little honor with him."  
"Yet I have seen Johnston shoot these twenty years, and I will not flinch from it. How say you, old war-hound, will you not have a flight shot or two with this springald?"  
"Tut, tut, Aylward," said the old bowman. "My day is past, and it is for the younger ones to hold what we have gained. I take it unkindly of thee, Samkin, that thou shouldst call all eyes thus upon a broken bowman who could once shoot a fair shaft. Let me feel that bow, Wilkins! It is a Scotch bow, I see, for the upper nock is without and the lower within. By the black rood! it is a good piece of yew, well nocked, well strung, well waxed, and very joyful to the feel. I think even now that I might hit any large and goodly mark with a bow like this. Turn thy quiver to me, Aylward. I love an ash arrow pierced with cornel-wood for a roving shaft."  
"By my hilt! and so do I," cried Aylward. "These three gander-winged shafts are such."  
"So I see, comrade. It has been my wont to choose a saddle-backed feather for a dead shaft, and a swine-backed for a smooth flier. I will take the two of them. Ah! Samkin, lad, the eye grows dim and the hand less firm as the years pass."  
"Come then, are you not ready?" said the Brabanter, who had watched with ill-concealed impatience the slow and methodic movements of his antagonist.  
"I will venture a rover with you, or try long-butts or hoyles," said old Johnston. "To my mind the long-bow is a better weapon than the arbalest, but it may be ill for me to prove it."  
"So I think," quoth the other with a sneer. He drew his moulinet from his girdle, and fixing it to the windlass, he drew back the powerful double cord until it had clicked into the catch. Then from his quiver he drew a short, thick quarrel, which he placed with the utmost care upon the groove. Word had spread of what was going forward, and the rivals were already surrounded, not only by the English archers of the Company, but by hundreds of arbalestiers and men-at-arms from the bands of Ortingo and La Nuit, to the latter of which the Brabanter belonged. 
"There is a mark yonder on the hill," said he; "mayhap you can discern it."  
"I see something," answered Johnston, shading his eyes with his hand; "but it is a very long shoot."  
"A fair shoot—a fair shoot! Stand aside, Arnaud, lest you find a bolt through your gizzard. Now, comrade, I take no flight shot, and I give you the vantage of watching my shaft." As he spoke he raised his arbalest to his shoulder and was about to pull the trigger, when a large gray stork flapped heavily into view skimming over the brow of the hill, and then soaring up into the air to pass the valley. Its shrill and piercing cries drew all eyes upon it, and, as it came nearer, a dark spot which circled above it resolved itself into a peregrine falcon, which hovered over its head, poising itself from time to time, and watching its chance of closing with its clumsy quarry. Nearer and nearer came the two birds, all absorbed in their own contest, the stork wheeling upwards, the hawk still fluttering above it, until they were not a hundred paces from the camp. The Brabanter raised his weapon to the sky, and there came the short, deep twang of his powerful string. His bolt struck the stork just where its wing meets the body, and the bird whirled aloft in a last convulsive flutter before falling wounded and flapping to the earth.  
A roar of applause burst from the crossbowmen; but at the instant that the bolt struck its mark old Johnston, who had stood listlessly with arrow on string, bent his bow and sped a shaft through the body of the falcon. Whipping the other from his belt, he sent it skimming some few feet from the earth with so true an aim that it struck and transfixed the stork for the second time ere it could reach the ground. A deep-chested shout of delight burst from the archers at the sight of this double feat, and Aylward, dancing with joy, threw his arms round the old marksman and embraced him with such vigor that their mail tunics clanged again. "Ah! camarade," he cried, "you shall have a stoup with me for this! What then, old dog, would not the hawk please thee, but thou must have the stork as well. Oh, to my heart again!"  
"It is a pretty piece of yew, and well strung," said Johnston with a twinkle in his deep-set gray eyes. "Even an old broken bowman might find the clout with a bow like this."
Now that's a story worthy of its wood. Wendy, Sir Conan and I dedicate it to the memory and good old common sense of your father.

And for everyone else, here's a pretty good video on yew from the land of the longbow.

Monday, November 17, 2014

Wood Science 101 (17) - Yew Better Know Your Wood

Back in the spring, I was doing some yard work that included winching out several old stumps of Japanese yew (Taxus cuspidata) that I had cut down seven years earlier. They were pretty bad boys and resisted the call of the winch; my friend's Jeep was sliding sidewards across the parking lot and the cable was singing as the root balls clung to their Mother Earth. But finally, stubbornly, each one came out with a groan and a crackle.

After the sounds of our ritual grunting died down, I examined the roots. Amazingly, they had come out nearly completely intact. The roots were thick, and still fleshy and pliable after all those years sitting dead in the dirt. But they were semi-rigid, and made quite interesting pieces. My friend suggested mounting a big bass in front of each, but I had another idea.

I had begun work on a large (440-gallon) aquarium project. These root balls, I thought, would make great structure in the tank for my pet fish to lounge around. And sure enough, the next day, the roots were dry and fully rigid...they looked great and were the perfect size to fill the large tank and still leave great swimming space for the fish.

Perfect for the tank..I think.

But the next morning, my very first thought on awakening was...Yew?! That's poisonous, isn't it?

Sure enough, a quick check confirmed that not only is yew poisonous, but it is one of the very most poisonous trees, with numerous recorded cases of livestock and human deaths due to ingestion of the branches and needles. In fact,
"The poisonous nature of the yew plant has been cited since the second century B.C. (Bryan-Brown, 1932). Julius Caesar (102–44 B.C.) documented an instance when Catuvolcus, the king of Eburones, poisoned himself with yew ‘juice’ (Fröhne and Pfänder, 1984). Celts committed ritual suicides by drinking extracts from yew foliage and used the sap to poison the tips of their arrows during the Gaelic Wars (Foster and Duke, 1990 and Hartzell, 1995). Some primitive cultures even used extracts as fish and animal poisons to aid in hunting (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962 and Hartzell, 1995). During the 18th and 19th centuries, people in Europe and India used decoctions of yew leaf as an abortifacient and an emmenagogue (Bryan-Brown, 1932 and Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962)."
- Taxines: a review of the mechanism and toxicity of yew (Taxus spp.) alkaloids. Wilson, Sauer, and Hooser, Toxicon, 39:2-3, 2001.
I also discovered that yew poisoning is a real concern among wood turners, who love the look and feel of a well-turned yew bowl or pipe. But after a morning of on-line investigative work, I still hadn't convinced myself that there was any real danger to the fish. After all, the root wood was old and dead, right? And even though horses had been killed by ingesting only a few small needles, there wasn't any case I could find of fish being killed by yew. Sure, there was one landscaping site that recommended keeping yew away from outdoor ponds. But that was, I reasoned, to keep falling needles out of the water. What are the odds that there was enough poison in roots to kill fish? OK, maybe fresh roots...but not seven-year old dead roots, surely.

My first thought was to just stick the thing in there, and watch for any signs of distress. But the thought of twelve-inch barbs going belly-up within seconds (which is the speed that taxine, the poison in yew, can cause heart arrest in horses) gave me pause. And even though the taxine is not supposed to be water-soluble, I have several fish that like to chew on wood to remove the slime...might they trigger a Fish-bola extermination one day while I was away at work?

So, I got scientific, and brought some samples to work. Here, I recruited Brett Diehl, whom you've seen in a previous GoWood video on lignin, to run a mass spectrometer analysis for me to ascertain if there was indeed any detectable taxine. For comparison, I brought in some fresh yew parts and set Brett to work.

A few days later, the results were in. Not only was there taxine in the old root, but both components, taxine A and taxine B, were there in almost identical footprints as in the fresh root and needles. That meant that in fact, the poison was not water-soluble, since it remained essentially the same in the root material for years in the ground and not leached away. So, no danger of the fish dying within seconds of putting the root in the tank. But, several species of my fish are voracious eaters of plants and plant material, and the odds of one nipping off a root tip and heading on to Davy Jones' locker were just too high to risk.

So, I gave up on the yew root idea and bought some plastic plants. Oh, I and did manage to find some wood after all...the smaller pieces on the left-hand side of the tank are mopane (Colophospermum mopane), with a 12% MC specific gravity of 1.08, and the larger piece on the right-hand side is a great specimen of African leadwood (Combretum imberbe) which at 12% MC specific gravity of 1.22 is reported to be the sixth heaviest wood in the world. I can attest to that...the piece in the tank, which was given to me by a generous collector in New Jersey, weighed thirty pounds dry and was a heck of a challenge to get in the tank.

So, be careful on that next wood project, and if you or your loved ones are going to be chewing on it, be sure and do your homework. I was amazed to discover how many woods are poisonous. Quite enough for a future post on GoWood, I guess.

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Wood Identification in Context - The Fallon & Wilkinson Experience

Last month I had the opportunity to attend what I think is a unique experience in learning about wood. There are other wood identification short courses out there, and we occasionally teach them at Penn State, but this one included a unique perspective that I wanted to experience. It is a two-day the first day, the class is a hands-on laboratory of whittling wood samples and grappling with the concept of transverse, radial, and tangential planes of view.

But the second day, the class moved to the campus of Yale University, where a collection of antique furniture resides. Tad Fallon and Randy Wilkinson, as professional furniture conservators, have had the opportunity to help the museum staff identify and verify several of the pieces in the study. In the class, they lead the students through the same thought process they go through when looking at pieces that are worth thousands, even millions of dollars. And it is a real learning experience, indeed.

With their permission, and the permission of the Yale Furniture Study, I'd like to share a little of that experience with you.

In our first video, Randy Wilkinson goes through a preliminary examination of a candle stand.

Next, Randy utilizes technology to examine the same piece up to 200x magnification to confirm the preliminary finding using the more technical aspects of wood identification learned by the class on the first day.

A little later, we moved into the "Tall Clock Row" of the collection, where Randy did a nice comparison lesson on a couple of clocks that could have fooled me on cursory visual inspection, mainly due to the colors.

We'll finish with an interesting introduction and demonstration of a high-tech secretary demonstrated by one of the collection's curators, John Stuart Gordon.

All in all, this was one of the best, if not the best, learning experiences I've ever attended, with a value far higher than the cost of the course. And I was at a disadvantage, not being an expert on antique furniture like the other students, who were mostly antique furniture appraisers and collectors. I'm thinking of learning a little bit about our furniture forebears, and attending the course again next year.

If you'd like to learn more about wood identification in the most interesting context possible, consider putting the course on your schedule next year. More information can be found here.

And if you're interested on seeing and learning more of the Yale Furniture Study, has a great audio slideshow here.

Friday, November 7, 2014

Standing on Guard for the Land of Pines and Maples

Over the last couple of years, my favorite football teams have been kind of hard to watch...and one night about eighteen months ago, out of curiosity, I paused a few minutes on the hockey channel to watch the Pittsburgh Penguins.

What a mistake. I am addicted. Haven't missed a Penguins game yet this season...even though I'm not sure I always understand what's going on out there. Hockey is a sport that was unwatchable on TV before the advent of 60-inch high-def screens, because you just couldn't see that darn puck. But now, thanks to the big screens and super-slow motion cameras everywhere around the rink, those of us who didn't grow up with stick in hand can now at least partially enjoy the game.

But those penalties are hard to figure out. Smashing into an opponent seems to be a good thing to do, except when it isn't. Over the eighteen months of watching hockey commentators explain the games, I'm still not sure when a check is legal and when it isn't. And hockey folks aren't real good at explaining the nuances...

For instance, last night, the Penguins played the Winnipeg Jets. Both teams were on five-game winning streaks. The Penguins have been making the games look like a cross between the Ice Capades and the Harlem Globetrotters, with blades flashing and pucks flying into the opponents net seemingly at will. Their new coach routinely explains his strategy with precision, and the guys execute the game plans with precision. This, I thought, was great hockey. Until I learned, last night, I still don't understand what makes great hockey.

All of a sudden, the Penguins were brawling every time one of the Jets gave them a dirty look. The Jets, for their part, were equal to the one point, one of the Jets who happens to be named after a professional boxer, grabbed a Penguin jersey with one hand, and reaching out with the other, grabbed the chinstrap of the Penguins player, daring him to remove his helmet. Which our guy seemed glad to do, and the Jet player graciously responded in kind, and the brawl was on.

And the action continued to escalate through the game...

This semi-controlled chaos continued to escalate until the game was decided by shoot-out in the Penguins favor.

Now, you might think that the Penguins and their disciplined coach were embarrassed by getting lured into playing so out-of-character. Actually, not so much. Star player Sidney Crosby commented after the game, with a smile on his face, what a fun game it was and how it was nice to see everyone standing up for each other. And the straight-laced coach admitted that it was perhaps the most entertaining game the Penguins had played yet this year. In short, a good time was had by all.

Now, we know that Canada is a little different from the U.S., as Sarah and the Crazy Canadian Woodworker have so well demonstrated in prior posts. And even though hockey isn't just a Canadian sport, it was invented there by a bunch of college students in Montreal back around 1875. And so, it is as distinct from similar but tamer sports (American football and basketball, soccer, and rugby) as a game could be. For one thing, the ice is a great equalizer, so that even the smaller guys can compete, especially if they can fight.

But there is a disturbing evolution in the game that should be corrected. All hockey sticks used to be made of wood. But nowadays, professional players are switching to sticks made of graphite, and even though they add more "whip" to shot than the wooden sticks, they break much easier. I actually saw one stick break in a player's hands when a puck shot by another player hit it in flight. Now, a good wood stick wooden do that.

One last note on this hockey new fascination with the game has forced me to face a harsh reality...The Canadian nation anthem "O Canada" is way better than our "Star-Spangled Banner."

The Canadian anthem is so good I sing along with it when we play the Canadian teams, and now my two youngest kids think we're Canadians. It's got a great melody, it's very singable, and you never hear a singer mess up the lyrics, which happens routinely with the Star-Spangled Banner. When you sing "O, Canada, we stand on guard for thee!" you actually feel like you're standing on guard for the Canadian homeland...although you're not quite sure what you're guarding against (Mountain pine beetles? Moose in heat strolling down through the town? Americans escaping Detroit?).

And if you don't buy that this song is really that good, look at the second verse...

O Canada! Where pines and maples grow,  Great prairies spread and Lordly rivers flow! How dear to us thy broad domain, From East to Western sea! The land of hope for all who toil, The true North strong and free! God keep our land, glorious and free. O Canada, we stand on guard for thee! O Canada, we stand on guard for thee!

You gotta love a country where pines and maples make the national anthem.

And one where the folks really sing it...even in two languages.

Thursday, October 23, 2014

How Product Diversity and Cost-Cutting is Killing MacDonald's, and Possibly Your Business

Wow, I'm falling further and further behind on my wood-related blog posts every week, as I scramble to cover too many bases, and more and more of you send me great ideas to cover. Keep the suggestions coming in, I'll get caught up sooner or later.

But today, I'm going to divert off wood specifically to talk about the weird trends in our economy, and how I believe the signals are being misread by so many. In the news yesterday was McDonald's quarterly report revealing that their profits are off by 30% from the same time last year, on a 3% drop in sales. Watch the whole video below, the reporters' comments tell a lot about the companies issues.

As they mention, increasing raw material (food) and labor costs are hurting...but the meat of the story (sorry) is in the comment..."Is their food real?"

Sad to say, Mickey D's management hasn't realized their food quality problem, as they've been busy expanding their menu and tearing down old kid-friendly restaurants and building new, trendier hangouts that look more like Starbucks and Panera. It is a classical case of newly-minted executive MBA management not liking "the horse that brung 'em."

I noticed the same thing with Wendy's a few years ago when good old Dave passed away. You remember friendly old Dave, he was always on TV telling you how the quality of their food was the first principle of the business. And Wendy's undoubtedly sold some of the freshest food you could get in a fast-food chain. But within a month of Dave's passing, I noticed an odd thing in Wendy's burgers...the bun's started tasting like cardboard, the burgers no longer had crunchy lettuce and onions on them, and the fries were different. In fact, the new management, under the leadership of Dave's daughter as I recall, was taking them in a new direction, toward a more diverse menu. But in the process, the old reliable burgers and fries suffered.  And they are still that way today. I quit going to Wendy's.

Just this afternoon, I decided to test McDonald's once again, in order to make sure this post was spot on. As I pulled up to the drive-through window, I noticed how big the menu was. For years (decades!), up until a couple of years ago, I had simply ordered the Quarter-Pounder with Cheese Meal, super-sized the fries and drink, and added an apple pie if I was hungry. But today, I noticed myself weighing the options...would it be a salad, or a "Southern-style" (yeah, right) chicken sandwich, a McWrap, or something else? In all, their were sixteen "value meals" along with three other full boards of menu items, so many that I didn't even have time to scan them all. I decided to give the old stand-by a try.

Now before I go any further, let me digress a little. For years, when I spoke at short-courses and industry meetings on quality control, I usually included a little anecdote about McDonald's versus Burger King burgers. I actually like the taste of a well-prepared Whopper better than a Quarter-Pounder, but I had found out based on 10,000 or so personal test points that Whoppers are more variable...and the likelihood of getting a really dry or crappy Whoppper was fairly high, and depended on the attitude of the cooks that day. In contrast, McDonald's has always excelled in quality control...a Quarter-Pounder in California tastes exactly like a Quarter-Pounder in Pennsylvania, every day of the year. So, when I get ready to pull over, I have to make a mental I want a Quarter-Pounder that I can rely on, or take a chance that the Burger King isn't suffering from a hangover? Usually, I pulled into Mickey D's. A great tale on the value of quality control.

So, as to my lunch...well, to use the common vernacular, it sucked. The bun was dry and the texture of the meat was somewhat like...well, it was like nothing else that I can recall eating. I understand why folks are questioning whether the food is real, or not.

But the nub of this story is, that the declining quality of the Quarter-Pounders, Whoppers, and Wendy's Singles is not the price of great alternatives on their menus...rather, it is symptomatic of companies losing focus on what they do best, to try to do more, with the result being mediocre at it all.  Want to know why sales are down at these chains? It's not because they offer too little variety, or too few personal options as most commentators are suggesting...but it is because everything they offer in their new product strategies is mediocre.

One company that hasn't yet fallen for this siren call is Chick-Fil-A. Sure, they've added a couple of salads for those grazers who have to sit with their chicken-sandwich-loving friends and relatives. But the Chick-Fil-A menu is still basically...chicken. And it's good. And that fact is related in the company's profits. Look at the last column of the chart below, and notice how much higher the sales-per-store figure is for Chick-Fil-A than their competitors.

Chick-Fil-A's success is the result of focus on what their company does best. And they generate those numbers in six-days-a-week, instead of their competitor's seven. A pretty good business model.

So, what has this got to do with the wood industry? I suspect you're way ahead of me by this point, but let's click it off one point at a time.

  1. The necessity economy.  While the government data-crunchers continue to tell us of the solid growth in the economy, they mean that sectors supported by public spending are doing well. Businesses selling real goods know that practically every other sector is soft. And companies that are selling to the middle class, the engine of our economy, are finding that costs are swelling much faster than customers' appetites for new floors, cabinets, or furniture. Fast food chains and Wal-Mart are struggling not because people want more selection, and only marginally because the internet is offering that selection, but because generally, people are getting used to a family budgeting paradigm of less spending on prepared food, clothes, and furniture. Utilities, insurance, higher mortgages and rents, and taxes are taking much larger shares of everyone's wallets these days, so demand for non-essentials is soft with no real surge in sight.
  2. Customer focus on quality. With that reduced budget for non-essentials, people are being more selective with their purchasing decisions. Here in the western world, we have so much stuff that we've reached the point that we don't need more of the same old same old...but we will buy better. Kitchens will be upgraded, but the upgrades will provide value for the dollar spent. Homes will be built, but quality features will be the selling point over generic size. Furniture buyers are looking for that unique piece to complement their room, not a full suite of new, mass-produced sameness. Customers have the tools at their disposal to comparison-shop like never before...and they will find and purchase value. Slick salesmanship of extra inventory won't work nearly as well as it used to.
  3. Producer focus on what the company does best. The companies that prosper in the coming tough years will be those that understand what their best product is, and shift more resources to that product line. More sales, marketing, purchasing expertise, and manufacturing technology will be committed to becoming the best in the world at making that product, instead of diluting those resources over a too-broad product line. Focus on improving that line, and the options it is offered in, but don't try to offer so many different lines that customers get distracted from their purchasing intent. Nowadays, when people walk into a showroom, they are looking for a specific product, and they are looking for the best they can get. If you make it, they will buy from you...but if your competition makes a better one, they'll figure it out and buy from them. You're better off not to make a mediocre product, and lose their business, than to make it, and lose it anyway.
  4. Continuous improvement in the face of competition. No market ever stands still, and companies must be committed to continuous improvement of their products, services, and processes to deliver them. Managers must be fully committed to hiring and keeping only the best employees, and investing time and money into them. Ideas must be encouraged, and implementation of great ideas must be fanatical. Have you ever had a great idea, only to see a competitor come out with it while your company is still talking about it? Don't let that happen again.
  5. Avoid the "all things to all people" syndrome. It doesn't work.
Which brings me back to McDonald's. Their sales are declining even as they rebuild chic new restaurants and serve tofu burgers and organic mocha latte.  Why? Because those people, the folks who frequent Starbuck's and Panera, were never their biggest fans, and never will be. Management of McDonald's may like those hipsters better than the moms and dads with carloads of noisy, messy three-year-olds, and good-old-boys in pickups with a hankering for a heavy dose of carbs, protein, and sugar, but those are the folks that made McDonald's what it is, and they will stay away from the new, toned-down, quiet shrines of mediocre food. They want Ronald, and climbing structures, and inexpensive, good food. If management of McDonald's wants to really be successful, they'll re-focus on that model and figure out how to deliver it in a clean, healthy, bright, format. And the business will come flooding back.

And please, bring back those fried apple pies! The baked ones taste like the cardboard they come in. I Go Wood in almost everything, but I draw the line at chewing cellulose in my dessert.

Thursday, October 16, 2014

Great Designs in Wood (60) - "Harmonie Hall"

Here's a well-named building in Kobe, Japan, that demonstrates another fundamental truth about building with wood...that wood makes every other building material look better through association.

Harmonie Hall, Kobe, Japan. Photographer:Tomoki Hahakura Source:

"The Kobe International Junior High School and Senior High School Harmonie Hall was based on an idea of a clear and open axial plan utilising concrete and wood to respond to the campus' history while creating a new relationship with the natural landscape. Harmonie Hall is an ancillary facility that includes a teacher's room, storage, toilets, and a gymnasium that can be used as both a basketball court and an auditorium.
This building is designed to capture the most from the rich surrounding environment while inheriting the formal language of the campus as it exists today. Functionally, gyms tend to be enclosed spaces removed from their surrounding environment, but this time, by utilising a wood structural frame, the building is in concert with the vibrant local environment as much as possible.
The context for this project was a combined junior and high school located in the peaceful hills overlooking Suma with a view of the Akashi Straits and Awaji Island. This school was established in 1992 with aims to foster women with prolific knowledge and grace, and the campus has since been designed with the theme that the campus has made an impression on their memory." 
Harmonie Hall, Kobe, Japan. Photographer:Tomoki Hahakura Source:

 Go here for a great slide slow and write-up of the building...

Build a concrete building, and you've got a bunker. Build a glass building, and you've got a cold, inefficient gallery. But add wood, and you've got harmony of material...a warm, inviting habitat for humanity...and a great addition to the planet.

Friday, October 10, 2014

Great Designs in Wood (59) - "Treet"

Aasmund B. wrote from Norway yesterday to confirm that yes, they are indeed proud of the heritage evoked by their "stavkirkes". But he also wanted the world to know that the Norwegians are taking the lead in modern wood construction by building a 14-story wooden building, called "Treet", in Bergen.

Thanks again to the excellent efforts of folks at reThinkWood, we have a video that tells us about the Bergen project, including great design and project justification detail. Naturally, as this is a Scandinavian project, this is not for bragging rights...the project is all about function, efficiency, and stewardship of the earth. As it should be.

In an interesting twist of history, the Battle of Bergen in 1181, the time of  construction of the famous stavkirkes, helped establish Bergen as one of the major centers of trade in Northern Europe in the 13th century. This interesting battle was between a group called the "Birkebeiners" (meaning "birch leg-ers", or something like that...some of the Birkebeiner army were apparently poor people of the forest, and wore birch-bark leggings and shoes) and the "farmers army", who were apparently trying to foist a fake king on the land. During the ongoing civil war that carried on for decades after the battle, the brave Birkebeiner rescued the true king, a two-year old waif named Haakon Haakonsson, and trundled him away over the mountains in the dead of winter to safety.
...In 1202, when King Sverre died, he had managed to acquire most of Norway, but in Østerdalen, the Baglers were still very powerful. Sverre's death meant some decrease in the power of the Birkebeins. His successor, King Haakon Sverresson, died only two years later, leaving his son Haakon Haakonsson as the ultimate target for the Baglers to get rid of the Lord on his dark throne. In 1206, the Birkebeiners set off on a dangerous voyage through treacherous mountains and forests, taking the now two-year-old Haakon Haakonsson to safety in Trondheim. Norwegian history credits the Birkebeiners' bravery with preserving the life of the boy who later became King Haakon Haakonsson IV, ended the civil wars in 1240 and forever changed Northern Europe's history through his reign.
-source: Wikipedia 
Skiing Birchlegs Crossing the Mountain with the Royal Child, painted by Knud Bergslien. Painting located at The Ski Museum. Holmenkollen, Oslo, Norway. Source: Wikipedia.

This romantic event is still celebrated every year in Norway, and around the world where Norwegian descendants reside, with festivities...
Today, the historic event of the rescue of Haakon Haakonsson is honoured in Norway by three annual sporting events, a run, Birkebeinerløpet; a mountain bike race, Birkebeinerrittet; a cross-country ski race, Birkebeinerrennet and, beginning in 2012, Landeveisbirken, a road bicycle race. Common for the bike and ski events is the requirement of carrying a backpack weighing 3.5 kg as a remembrance of the child the Birkebeiners had to carry on their journey. The bike and ski events start in Rena and all three events finish at Lillehammer. There are also sister cross-country ski races held in Hayward Wisconsin (USA) (the American Birkebeiner), in Edmonton (Canada) and in Falls Creek (Australia).
Wooden churches, birch bark leggings, toddler kings, and now the tallest wooden building on Earth. Just a small part of Norway's rich contribution to a world Going Wood.

Thursday, October 9, 2014

Great Designs in Wood (58) - The Stavkirke

Another of the seemingly endless testimonies of wood as the greatest of building materials is the stavkirke, or stave church. These ancient buildings of worship were built centuries ago and stand today as testaments to the wisdom and skill of their builders.

The stavkirke in Urnes, Norway is the oldest, built in 1130...just about the time the Chinese were building the Sakyamuni Pagoda that we looked at in GDiW(11).

The largest is in Heddal, Norway, and was built about a hundred years after the smaller church in Urnes.

To those who think that "saving trees" by discouraging the use of wood in buildings and other products is the way to save the planet, consider how long the carbon in those church logs has been sequestered...centuries longer than all the other 12-century trees in that region, which have died and returned their carbon to the atmosphere.

And besides saving the planet, these old wooden churches probably helped saved a few souls as well. Not a bad return on investment for labor and lives well spent.

Friday, October 3, 2014

Great Designs in Wood (57) - The L'Aquila Earthquake Recovery Project

On April 6, 2009, a major earthquake rocked the ancient town of L'Aquila, Italy.
"The earthquake caused damage to between 3,000 and 11,000 buildings in the medieval city of L'Aquila. Several buildings also collapsed. Two hundred and ninety-seven people died in the earthquake, including six Macedonians, two Czechs, five Romanian citizens, two Palestinians, one Greek citizen, one French citizen, one Ukrainian citizen and one Israeli citizen, and approximately 1,500 people were injured. Twenty of the victims were children. Around 65,000 people were rendered homeless.
The main earthquake was preceded by two smaller earthquakes the previous day. The earthquake was felt as far away as Rome (92 kilometres (57 mi) away), in other parts of Lazio, as well as Marche, Molise, Umbria and Campania. Schools remained closed in the Abruzzo region. Most of the inhabitants of L'Aquila abandoned their homes and the city itself; in the city centre of L'Aquila, and the nearby village of Paganica which was also badly damaged, many streets were impassable due to fallen masonry. The hospital at L'Aquila, where many of the victims were brought, suffered damage in the 4.8 aftershock which followed the main earthquake an hour later. Powerful aftershocks, some only slightly weaker than the main shock, were felt throughout the following 2 days.
Many of L'Aquila's medieval buildings were damaged. The apse of the Basilica of Saint Bernardino of Siena, L'Aquila's largest Renaissance church, was seriously damaged, and its campanile collapsed. Almost the whole dome of the 18th-century church of Anime Sante in Piazza Duomo fell down. The 13th-century Basilica di Santa Maria di Collemaggio collapsed from the transept to the back of the church, and Porta Napoli, the oldest gate to the city, was destroyed. The third floor of Forte Spagnolo, the 16th-century castle housing the National Museum of Abruzzo, collapsed, as did the cupola of the 18th-century Baroque church of St Augustine, damaging L'Aquila's state archives. This church had been rebuilt after it was destroyed in the 1703 earthquake. The Cathedral of L'Aquila has lost part of its transept and maybe more with the effects of the aftershocks. Slight damage was also reported to the Baths of Caracalla in Rome, but other Roman monuments such as the Colosseum and Roman Forum were unharmed.
While most of l'Aquila's medieval structures suffered damage, many of its modern buildings suffered the greatest damage, for instance, a dormitory at the university of l'Aquila collapsed. Even some buildings that were believed to be "earthquake-proof" were damaged. L'Aquila Hospital's new wing, which opened in 2000 and was thought capable of resisting almost any earthquake, suffered extensive damage and had to be closed."
- Source: Wikipedia 
The devastation and shock of that day looked frightfully familiar...

The silver lining of this dreadful building codes have been implemented, codes that reflect the growing awareness that wood is man's best friend, at least when it comes to building. Especially hopeful is the last thirty seconds of the following video, in which the narrator acknowledges that man has always known the value of wood in construction, and points to some great examples of that knowledge.

By Going Wood again, Italians are rediscovering the wisdom of the ages. I only wish our American regulatory folks would wake up. More on that in the next post.

Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Great Designs in Wood (56) - The Tall Composite Structure

I've posted videos before on this topic, and the good news is, that they keep getting better. Which is a sign, I think, that this concept has legs. Best sign of all is that young, sustainability-oriented minds seem to really latch on to the concept. And as they do, the concept of the wooden, sustainable city comes that much closer to reality.

Friday, September 26, 2014

Go Climb a Tree

Well, what else are you going to do this weekend? Sit around and chow down on burgers and beer while watching forty-two football games? Come on, do like these guys, and go find a local tree to climb. Experience the exhilaration of swaying branches while breathing in clean, fresh air. This is the way to Go Wood.

Thursday, September 25, 2014

Great Designs in Wood (55): A Visit with Furniture Maker Mike Korsak

I was able to break free last week and visit Mike Korsak, a furniture maker with ties to Penn State. Mike sort of "evolved" into this entrepreneurial venture into furniture-making, and it's was nice to see someone with a desire and talent be able to get out and do his own thing for a living.

Mike specializes in what I would call "art" furniture...many of his projects wind up displayed in art galleries before moving on to their owners. Here's a link to his website, and below are a few examples of his work.

"Echo and Narcissus." These pieces are featured in the video.

An Asian-inspired bench.
And another view.

"Figured Out."

"In Time."

Walnut Tall Cabinet.

I hope you enjoy the visit...please excuse my limited videography skills. Technical difficulties forced me to have a commercial break, but please watch both segments, I think you'll enjoy.

And here's the shorter second segment...

Thanks to Mike for sharing a portion of his day with us.