GoWood Document Library

The Virtual Extension Specialist at work. An attempt to put interesting reference material in my office at Your disposal (and to eliminate long-forgotten files while saving the documents for posterity).

These documents are provided as a service to help your wood-related research or investigation of some issue. As in any other field of science, the information contained in these documents should be confirmed by a wood or forest scientist, Extension educator, or certified engineer prior to use.  Data in these documents will provide useful comparative analyses from a relative perspective, but should be confirmed in more recent reference guides. Please consider the publication date of all information contained therein.

Penn State Wood-Related Extension Articles 


A Marketing Guide for Manufacturers and Entrepreneurs of Secondary-Processed Wood Products in the Northeastern United States
by Edward T. Cesa. USDA Forest Service Northeastern State and Private Forestry. Publication NA-TP-09-92. 1992.
Lots of great ideas for growing your wood-product business, including an excellent summary of resources and industry contacts by state.
A Planning Guide for Small and Medium Size Wood Products Companies: The Keys to Success
by Jeff Howe and Steve Bratkovich. USDA Forest Service NE State and Private Forestry Report NA-TP-09-95. 1995.

Strip Oak Flooring. US Dept. of Commerce Standard CS56-60. Fourth Edition. 1960.

Weight of Wood

Average Weights of Various Species of Wood
USDA Forest Products Laboratory Technical Note No. B-15. 1919.

Weights of Various Woods Grown in the United States
USDA Forest Products Laboratory Technical Note No. 218. 1931.
Revised, 1953.

Lumber Drying

Air Drying Lumber in a Forklift Yard
by Raymond C. Reitz. USDA Forest Products Laboratory Research Note FPL-0209. 1970.

Drying Small Quantities of Green Hardwoods
by Charles M. Micelli, Howard N. Rosen, and Howard A. Spalt. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NC-228. 1982.

Wetwood in Trees: A Timber Resource Problem
by J.C. Ward and W.Y. Pong. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-112. 1980.

Bacterial Oak and How to Dry It
by James C. Ward. Southern Lumberman 243(3017):8-10. 1982.
The easiest to understand resource on the topic I know of. Short and sweet.
Drying Procedures for Bacterially Infected Northern Red Oak Lumber
by John M. McMillen, James C. Ward, and Joseph Chern. USDA Forest Service FPL Research Paper FPL345. 1979
A more technical treatment of the above. 
Microbiology of Wetwood: Role of Anaerobic Bacterial Populations in Living Trees
by Bernhard Schink, James C. Ward, and J.G. Zeikus. Journal of General Microbiology (1981) 123:313-322. 1981.
The purpose of the present paper is to quantify the aerobic and anaerobic microbial populations associated with wetwood, and to relate the metabolic properties of prevalent wetwood bacteria to chemical and structural features of wetwood. Plus, it has great SEM photos of normal vessel-to-ray pit membranes in cottonwood, compared to the same practically destroyed by a wetwood bacteria population. Neat to see the little critters at work, and understand that they are the cause of so many drying problems. 
Bacteriological, Chemical, and Physical Properties of Wetwood in Living Trees
by J.C. Ward and J.G. Zeikus. Natural Variations of Wood Properties, Proceedings IUFRO Working Party S.5.01-02. 1980.
Especially thorough literature review paper. Serious students of the topic start here.
Honeycomb and Ring Failure in Bacterially Infected Red Oak Lumber After Kiln Drying
by J.C. Ward, R.A. Hann, R.C. Baltes, and E.H. Bulgrin. USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory. Research paper FPL 165. 1972.
Some early work on the topic featuring great photos of infected log cross-sections and ring failure, shake, and honeycomb in lumber.
Properties Related to Drying Defects in Red Oak Wetwood
by Erkki Verkasalo, Robert J. Ross, Anton TenWolde, and Robert L. Youngs. USDA Forest Service FPL Research Paper FPL-RP-516. 1993.
Later research paper notable for its SEM's of bacteria in red oak and conclusion that "Neither moisture content nor density appears to have potential for identifying bacterial infection." Well demonstrated by statistics offered in Table 2 of the paper.
Identifying Bacterially Infected Oak by Stress Wave Nondestructive Evaluation
by Robert J. Ross, James C. Ward, and Anton TenWolde. USDA Forest Service FPL Research Paper FPL-RP-512. 1992.
Interesting Table 2 demonstrates the higher level of bacterial infection in lower grade boards "...because clear boards in the higher lumber grades are generally sawn from the outer shell of the butt and upper log, and knotty boards in the lower grades are sawn from the interior where wetwood is more prevalent."
Black Cherry Wetwood Ring Shake Case Study
by Walter Johnson and James C. Ward. Penn State Cooperative Extension Service and USDA Forest Service FPL. Case study correspondence between cabinet producer, Johnson, and Ward. 1983 with reference documents from 1977.

Visual Grading

Hardwood Log Grades and Lumber Grades: Is There a Relationship?
by Daniel L. Cassens and Burnell C. Fischer. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service. 1978.

Identifiying White Oak Logs with Sodium Nitrite
by Regis B. Miller, J. Thomas Quirk, Donna J. Christensen. Forest Products Journal 35(2):33-38. 1985.
It worked every time.
Process Optimization

ROMI-RIP: Rough Mill Rip-First Simulator
by R. Edward Thomas. USDA Forest Service NE Forest Experiment Station General Technical Report NE-206. 1995.

ROMI-3: Rough Mill Simulator Version 3.0: User's Guide
by Joel M. Weiss and R. Edward Thomas. USDA Forest Service NE Research Station General Technical Report NE-328. 2005.

1998 Data Bank for Kiln-Dried Red Oak Lumber
by Charles J. Gatchell, R. Edward Thomas, and Elizabeth S. Walker. USDA Forest Service NE Research Station General Technical Report NE-245. 1998.

User's Guide to UGRS: The Ultimate Grading and Remanufacturing System version 5.0
by John Moody, Charles J. Gatchell, Elizabeth S. Walker, and Powsiri Klinkhachorn. USDA Forest Service NE Research Station General Technical Report NE-254. 1998.

Wood Furniture Components: Implementation of Flow-Line Technology Based on Lean Manufacturing Concepts
by W. Duane Motsenbocker, P.H. Steele, S.L. Hunter, S.H. Bullard, A. Schuler. Forest and Wildlife Research Center, Bulletin FP333, Mississippi State University. 2005.

Wood Engineering

Tests of Structural Timbers
by McGarvey Cline and A.L. Heim. USDA Forest Products Laboratory Forest Service Bulletin 108. 1912.
A nice historical document from the early days of the Forest Service, then under the leadership of Henry S. Graves. "The tests covered by this bulletin were begun in 1903 by Dr. W.K. Hatt, at that time Chief of the Section of Timber Tests of the Bureau of Forestry, and were conducted under his general supervision until 1907, since which time he has been connected with the work in a consulting capacity. Prior to the establishment of the Forest Products Laboratory in cooperation with the University of Wisconsin, in 1909, the tests were carried on at laboratories conducted in cooperation with  Purdue University, Yale Forest School, University of Oregon, University of California, University of Washington, and the University of Colorado. Since 1909 cooperation with all of these laboratories, except those at the University of Washington and the University of Colorado, has been discontinued, and the timber-test work centralized at the Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wis.." The charts and pictures of equipment in this book are especially fascinating. 
Guide to the Grading of Structural Timbers and the Determination of Working Stresses
by T.R.C. Wilson. USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory. Miscellaneous Publication No. 185. 1934.
Another interesting historical wood engineering document, published under the FPL Director tenure of Carlile P. Winslow, who wrote a short book entitled "Wood Goes to War." I don't think I have that one, but if it turns up, I'll add it...
Recommendations for Basic Stresses
by the FPL. USDA Forest Service FPL Supplement No.2 to Miscellaneous Publication No. 185. 1948.
Supplement to the document above. 
1943 Standard Specifications for Structural Stress-Grades of Hardwoods and Cypress
by the National Hardwood Lumber Association. 1943.
My copy has four pages from the SPIB lumber standard of the time copied into it, so don't get confused when you start reading about southern pine.
Mechanical and Physical Properties of Five Latin American Hardwoods: Prioria copsifera, Piptadenia pittieri, Toluifera balsamum, Fagara monophylla, and Guarea trichilioides. Ph.D. dissertation by Newell A. Norton, University of Michigan, 1932. Dr. Norton went on to work at the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, and then to the Wood Products faculty at Penn State.


Annual Inventory Report for Pennsylvania's Forests: Results from the First Three Years
by William H. McWilliams, C.A. Alerich, D.A. Devlin, A.J. Lister, T.W. Lister, S.L. Sterner, and J.A. Westfall. USDA Forest Service Northeastern Research Station Resource Bulletin NE-159. 2004.

The State of the Forest: A Snapshot of Pennsylvania's Updated Forest Inventory 2004
by the Pennsylvania DCNR Bureau of Forestry. USDA Forest Service NE State and Private Forestry NA-FR-03-04. 2004.
A nice, short summary of the detailed document above.

Wood Veneer/Plywood

Defects in Hardwood Veneer Logs: Their Frequency and Importance
by E.S. Harrar. USDA Forest Service Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. Station Paper No. 39. 1954.

The Major Defects in Southern Hardwood Veneer Logs and Bolts
by E.S. Harrar and R.A. Campbell. USDA Forest Service Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. Research Paper SE-19. 1966.

Buckle in Veneer
by John F. Lutz. USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory. Research Note FPL-0207. 1970.

Wood and Log Characteristics Affecting Veneer Production
by John F. Lutz. USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory. Research Paper FPL 150. 1971.

Veneer Species that Grow in the United States

by John F. Lutz. USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory. Research Paper FPL 167. 1972.

Techniques for Peeling, Slicing, and Drying Veneer
by John F. Lutz. USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory. Research Paper FPL 228. 1974.

Wood Veneer: Log Selection, Cutting, and Drying

by John F. Lutz. USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Technical Bulletin 1557. 1977.

Last update: July 29, 2016


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